Sunday, July 28, 2013


Volume 2013, Issue No.7, July 2, 2013, Time: 9h36m A. M.


[Part B]


Professor Dr. Kotcherlakota Lakshmi Narayana

{Retd. Prof. of Physics, SU, Kolhapur}, 17-11-10, Narasimha Ashram, Official Colony, Maharanipeta.P.O, Visakhapatnam-530002

Mobile No: 9491902867 & 9594717723

ORIGINAL DRAFT ON: 23rd July 2011 : 18h01mPM


                       Colin Scott writes: "With the upsurge of multidisciplinary interest in 'traditional ecological knowledge', models explicitly held by indigenous people in areas as diverse as forestry, fisheries, and physical geography are being paid increasing attention by Western Scientists, who have in some cases established extremely productive long-term dialogues with local experts. The idea that local experts are often better informed than their Western Peers is at last receiving significant acknowledgment beyond the boundaries of anthropology."

Indian Mathematics arose as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. Mathematics in fact was an outcome of linguistic developments in India and Panini laid down the formal rules and definitions of Sanskrit grammar which gave it its linguistic perfection. Mathematics, Physics, other Sciences and Technology have been completely mastered and the devoted calm people, many of them were obviously slain silently and secretly for mudane gains by foreign rutheless invaders. Even the Ramayana epic elaborates on the Ayurveda treatment. Takshila University with 10,000 students and about 68 faculties such as Mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, Art of Warfare, Vedas, Fine Arts, etc. Kautilya, Paninin, Jaimini, Vishusarma were students of this university. Pythagoras was supposed to have spent several years here. Brahmi script people have used a system of numbers specification based on 60. Use of decimal numbers, and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. The Science of Astronomy was also spurred by the need to have accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. Vaastu sastra of Indus civilization and the Inca and Mayan civilizations were almost parallel and were the exported knowledge of the ancient INTELLECT INDIA. The Gold and Silver coin money transanctions have been totally withdrawn in 1818AD and Copper coins were introduced instead to befool the Indian sentiment of Divinity of Gods etc. The seeds of first Independence movement against British were thus laid on 23rd June 1757. The ancient treatises available in India to-day are very few, since most of them have been forcibly whisked away from Bharat and perhaps authors or people possessing them were murdered brutally during the suppressive measures taken by the invaders of the country from foreign lands. Kutapa sangita (group music) was used on the stage. Vocal music was sung with instrumental accompaniment and dance and grama-ragas in which they were to be sung were fixed for various acts of the drama. The language used for the songs was generally Prakrit. The five-pronged flames emerging from Shiva's aureole (a circle, which has no beginning or end) signifies the five basic elements as also the five ceaseless functions of Shiva (creator, preserver, destroyer, liberator and eliminator of ignorance). Udayagiri is also the original site of the famous iron pillar of Chandragupta II which is now in Delhi.


Fig.1B A graceful architecture of a merry maid

The rushi is one to whom the Gods revealed the Vedas (Knowledge). Also a “sage” is bestowed with Vedic knowledge by the power of his Tapashya i.e. worship to the God. Viswamitra was one of the great sages. Sage Sandipani was the teacher of Krishna and Balaram. Doubtful wither the descended family of Sandipani exist even to-date in Pundit Suryanarayana Vyas. Whereas Bhartrihari left kingdom to his brother Vikram and travelled wide via Ujjain, Varanasi and finally in a cave in Haridwar practiced yoga for twelve years and under the GURU, Gorakhnath of Nath sect. Is it possible to unearth the forest and caves, probably covered away and ruined by floods and vagaries of the Mother Nature, around the place of era of Bhatrihari?

Vyasa is the most important rushi (sage) in the Hindu pantheon of religions. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyasa, for he is the one who compiled the Vedas. He is the author of the Hindu epic Mahabharata and the important character in many Puranas. Jaimini was an ancient rushi a great philosopher of the Mimansa School and known to be a disciple of Veda Vyasa (the son of preaching rushi Parashara). Rushi Kashyap is regarded as the father of the Devas, Asuras, and in fact all the humankind. Kraustuki is a Markandeya disciple. Kripa sometimes also referred to as Kripacharya was an important character in the Mahabharata; he is one of the Chiranjivi (the “immortals”). Marichi is the son of Brahma and also one of the Saptarushis. Markandeya was an ancient rushi and the author of Markendaya Purana. Some scholars say he was equally important as Vyasa. Narada is a divine sage (also a son of Brahma) in the Vaishnava tradition. He plays a chief role in a number of Puranic texts.

Sapta Rushulu

1. Agashaya 2. Atri 3. Angira 4. Kashyap 5. Bhrig 6. Vashishta 7. Vishwamitra.

Agastya’s Sakthi tantra elaborates 12 comets that occur in rainy season their potency is very high. He is the brother of Vashishta. He stopped the growth of Vindya Mountains in height to compete with Himalayas. In Bhadrapada Month of Hindu Calendar the Agasthya star would be the brightest. He was capable of enormous feats like swallowing of an ocean. He was born out of a pot.

For date 3730BC the Dasaradha Raja had the 10th generation descendent Vedic King Sudas.

Vashista head was recovered from a scrap dealer in Kasi by Dr. R. Anderson,in 1958. It dates back to 3700BC! Rig-Veda has mentioned the word “ARYA” 36 times?. Vashistha is one of the Saptarushis. He was the Maanasa-putra (“a brain child”) of Brahma. He possessed the divine cow known as Kamadhenu and the Kamadhenu’s child Nandini. Vasistha (also spelled as Vashishtha) is the author of some parts of the Rig-Veda. He wrote that

                 “Virat Dhatuvikaarane vishamaspandnaadhinaa

               Thathanga avayavasyaasya janjaalasya viashmam

                Dhurbikshva grahohotpaathapaatha maanayanthi.”

meaning that when a state of Cosmic balance is perturbed then in the Cosmic body (Viraat), quality (thathva), Metallic (dhathu), and life manifestation (prana shakti) undergo vicious transformations generating Comets, Meteor fall, and uncontrolled turbulent diseased viral forms.

In Bhagavatham it is stated that

                         “drhuvakshthi yama padh’ambu munthata

                  niruvadhiyaaru yendlu sanam braapinthuvu”

means that rotational movement of the network of the cosmic entities, around the Pole Star takes place in about 26000 years.

Even (Dhruva) the Pole Star rotates was stated in Vayu Puranam 52.88 in a sloka

                       “Thailpeedaakaram chakram bramat bramayathe

                    yadha thadha bramanthi jyotheemansheefathabhdhaani sarvasha”

Like the wheel to extract the oil from the seeds, which rotates and makes also the other things to rotate within itself.

                  Many notional science aspects as understood by the ancient INTELLECT INDIA are given in an article by Devarakonda Sheshagiri Rao in the journal “Mukunda Bhakthi Special” July 2008 pages 40-45. Angiras, is a Vedic Sage who wrote most of the Atharva Veda. Bhrigu one of the seven sages, or Saptarushis, who lived in ancient India. Bhrigu was one of the Prajapatis (and Maanasa Putra, a brain child) that Brahma created as facilitators of creation. Bhrigu married Khyati daughter of Kardana Prajapati. Parasuram was an instructor. From Lord Shiva got Bhargava Astra. Atri, is a legendary scholar and a son of Brahma. He is among the seven (great) sages, Sapta Rushis. Bharadwaja also known as Bharadwaj Gotra, a descendant of rushi Angiras, was one of the greatest Hindu sages. Vishwamitra taught Rama the use of weapon “Aditya Hridaya” (an atomic nuclear or fusion bomb), known as the mantra of the Sun God. Rama along with Sita and Lakshmana (in the epic Ramayana) met many rushis and sages including Bharadwaja and Viswamitra told them to settle at Panchavati. Chiranjivi i.e. God Hanuman is Immortal in Hinduism. Their list may differ, but you will always find the following deities/personalities among them: Markandeya, Parashara, Vyasa, Hanuman, and Mahabali. Paráshara the Rig-Veda Rushi and is the author of many ancient Indian texts. He was the grandson of Vasishtha and the author of some verses of the Rig-Veda. Pulatsya one of the ten Prajapatis sons of Brahma, and is one of the Saptarushis. He was the spiritual vibration through the power of which some texts of the Puranas were written. Sapta rushis is actually combination of two Sanskrit words meaning “Seven Sages”. Valmiki is the famous poet and the author of the epic Ramayana. Vasudeva is the father of Krishna.

Kashyapa Mahamuni: 
        Marichi son was one of the ten manasa putras of Brahma. Has 13 daughters Adit, Diti, Kadree, Danu etc. His sons Avatsara and Asita also Garuda and Aruna. 12 adityas are sons of Aditi & Kashyapa. He is als father of Devas, Asuras, Nagas, Apsaras, Ghandharvas, Rahu and all humanity. Through Aditi he begot Agni and Aditya. Second wife is Diti gave Datyas. Diti daughter of Dasaratha and has sister Sati a consort of Shiva. He wrote vaastu sastra and built palaces for kings etc.

Rig-Veda 1.50.4 specifies velocity of light as

    “taranirvisva darsato jyotiskrdasi 
      surya visvama bhasi rocanom”

Sayancarya 1400AD

                “ Yojananan saharam dve dve sate dve ca yojane ekna

                   nimisardhena karma mana namostute”

            Sun light travels 2202 yojanas in ½ nimisha. Yojana is 9.11 miles, and there are 8,10,000 half nimisha in one full day of Earth. One second there are 8/75 half nimishas. Thus 2202*9.11/(8/75) =1,88064 miles/sec. (Maxmuller compilation of Rig-Veda 1890 not trustable of the figures and dates etc. since he distorted them heavily). Saayana Bhashya gives correct versions of the calculations.

          Yojana Arthsatra gives 9.11 miles as 8000dhanus. One dhanasu is 6 feet. Arya bhata gives yojana as four krosas i.e 5 miles. Units specified in their work Saayana Bhashya is really marvelous.


   Hymn of Rig-Veda says: 
          “YATRA NARISHU PUJYATE TATRA RAMYATE DEVATA”, where women are worshiped there dwell the devatas. The famous rishika of ancient India are Ramase, Lopamudra, Apala, Kadru, Juhu, Ghosa, Visvavara, Vaganbhrin, Pauloshini, Jarita, Sraddha-komayi, urvasi, Sarange, Yami, Indrani, Savitri, Devjami, Nodha, Akrishta Bhasha, Sikatanivavari, and Gaupayana. Sages are Gangi, Maitreyi and Vedavathi (daughter of Sage Kusadhaja).

             Rani Ahaliya Bhai 1735-1795 restored the Gaya’s Vishnu Temple, Tirupati Venkateswara Temple and Kashi Viswesar Temple. Also constructed the Kasi to Calcutta road way. Kumara devi of Chandra Gupta Mourya also did lot of development acivity in India. The Lord Venkateswara on Sheshachalam hill(described as the Head of Adishesha), Ahobilam (central p[art of Adishesha) and the Anathagiri Padnabha Temple (the tail part of Adishesha) form a threesome hill ranges in South India. There are several small caves dug in the hills mostly for the Rushis to stay, but similar to the caves of Jains in Bhuvaneswar. Actually these hills arevery famous for colored precious stones, similar to the Ellora caves colored stones and the hills are dense with vegetation of several varities of trees a rich biodiversity region.In vishnupuranam also is described a place of Bilam in Piduguralla mandalam of Andhra Pradesh. But since Moosi river originates in Anatagiri hills one safely assert that the place where Lord Krishna washed his legs by the Rushi Muchikundani. The exact place is called the Bhavanasini and becomes a pushkara on the day of Sama-ekadasi of Ashada month Suddha ekadasi. It is believed that Bhagirdha River flows on that day in the Bhavanashini Pushkarni River. In Karnataka there is a place called Dhrmasthala, in tlugu known as PRGADA (ministers or village administrators especially the family of Hegdes) with a sivalinga brought from Kadhri and has temple by name Manjunadha, and Manju means ice. The village disputes are resolved in front of the God as per the justice rendered by Hegde priest of the temple.

Luminary in Indian Medicine and Ayurveda

           Two turks dug the basement of Buddhist stoopa (pillar) near Magioi-Quan Tura, for hidden wealth in February 1890 but only found an old manuscript written on birch bark (known as Indian pothi) and Major General H. Bower bought it and it took 7 years for him to get the details and published an English version in 1897 consisting of 51 leaves and divided into 7 sections on Indian Medicine. The Turkistan was influenced and ruled by Samudhra Gupta in 350-475 AD.

       The book written by Dr. K.R.Srikanth Murthy, on Luminaries in Indian Medicine was published by chaukhanbha oriental, Varanasi in 1968, gives a complete list of written ancient material in the form Pothis by several Indian ancient experts and also specifies those that are not traceable but which were referred in other commentaries.

Ayurveda treatment

          Even the Ramayana epic elaborates on the Ayurveda treatment. Thus it dates back to millenniums ago. Charaka sometimes spelled as Caraka was born about the year 300 BC and he made some most important contributions to the ancient Ayurveda medical science. Sushruta an ancient Indian surgeon and the author of the book Sushruta Samhita, in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments. He also classified human surgery into several categories. Categories of surgery are stated to be: 1. Chedya:cutting 2. Lekhya:Separation 3. Vedhya:removal of toxic objects 4. Ishya:probing the blood capillaries for identifying the disease. 5. Aharya Kriya:removal of harmful elements from the body 6. Viradavya:removing water from the blood and body 7. Civya: suturing 8. Bedya kriya:making holes and performing surgery.

      Buddha physician was Devaka. Madhavas “Nidana Sastra” (700AD) was a diagnosis approach of identifying the various diseases in the human body by the human gestures they make and from the smells emitted from the body.

1. Charaka Samhita, 2. Astanga Hridaya (Vagbhatta 600AD), 3. Bhavaprakasa ( 1600AD), and 4. Sushruta Samhita is the four treatises that elaborate on the Medicinal Plants. The genetic codes even though identified by the present day technology the patent possession rights of the Medicinal Plant extracts and modifications thereof would be the propriety of INTELLECT INDIA. Vinaya Pitika is an approach that describes how germs in the brain were removed by Surgery.The sacred plant Tulasi is wonder drug for Indians. There are three types known as Lakshmi ,Rama and Krishna tulasi. Any tulasi leaves combined with ghee when applied removes joint pains. Tulasi and Turmeric reduces body’s glucose levels. Tulasi leaves and lemon removes skin disease. Curd, Honey and Tulasi leaves juice avoids vomiting. Ulasi and pepper cures malaria. Tulasi with milk in the night when taken removes throat disorders.

Bhoja Prabandha of 927AD describes removal of tumor from brain using anesthesia (Sammohini). Bhardwaj, Atreya, Agnikaya, Charaka, Dhanvantari and Sushruta are mentioned as the most significant luminaries in ancient Ayurveda. Arogya Prabha treatise mentions experts like Rigveda in 1.116.14 &15 sections states that a women called Vischala the queen of King Khela was fitted with artificial leg made of iron by Ashwini Physicians. The next section in this treatise, describes how the eye diseases can be cured by eye transplantation.

       Musk the liquid from the musk deer is used extensively in preparing the toiletries. Musk means deer’s testicals. Spikanadai a very rarest herb of Himalayas, has an aura of fragrance and used to blacken the hair. It is also a medicine. Chandana i.e. Sandle wood is of three varities. 1. White–srikhand or sweta 2. Yellow-Peeta 3. Red- raktha. They are all used for preparing perfumes. The chandan paste is applied on Lord Vara Narasimha Murthy idols in temples, to block his radiant power of fire. The new brides are also decorated with chandan powder and paste before their wedding night. In Maharashtra the region of Dongre port, used to sell the thick cotton cloth died with Indigo seeds juice and known as Syakarah was mostly purchased and imported by portugeese in 1300AD. That is the forerunner of the tight Jeen Pant dresses now being imported by youth in India from abroad. Instead of cloth they use the Jute fibre cloth.


Pancha sheela of India are 1. Truth 2. Good conduct 3. Peace 4. Love 5. Harmlessness

Thiruvalluvar a celebrated Tamil poet who wrote the Thirukkural, a work on ethics in Tamil literature. Prahlada a character in many Puranic texts; he is famed for being uniquely devoted to Lord Vishnu. He is a mahajana i.e., a “great devotee” (in the Vaishnava traditions). Aandaal is a 10th century saint (Tamil). She belongs to the Vaishnava tradition and is credited as the author of a number of admirable Tamil works.

        There are 18 significant Puranas which may be regarded as ENCYLOPEDIAS of INTELLECT INDIA. They are far more informative and concisely expounded by the great Rushis and the Maha-munis of India. These are 1. Vishnu Purana- with 23000 verses gives the six angas of Veda tells about the age of Kali. 2. Narada Purana of 25000 verses written by Narada gives details of Jaganadha Puri, Dwaraka, and Badrinath.3. Padma Purana consisting of 35000 verses gives dharma and practice of Rituals. 4. Garuda Purana of 19000 deals with aspects of Birth, Death, reincarnation, merits and evils etc. 5.Vanasth Purana of 24000 verses explains several of the VRATAS to be observed. 6. Bhagav Purana of 18000 verses explains about Krishi i.e agriculture etc. 7.Brahmanada Purana of 12000 gives details of celestial bodies, Sri Lalitha etc. 8. Brahmavarta Purana of 18000 verses creation etc. 9. Markendaya Purana of 9000 verses gives Chandi Homa etc. 10. Bhavisya Purana of 14500 verses Lord Surya and system of professionalism as four casts. 11. Vamana Purana of 10,000verses told by Narada to Pulastya gives about Earth and future of creation. 12. Brahma of 10000 verses deals with Dharma. 13. Matsya Purana of 14000 verses details matsya avatar, and was told to Manu. 14. Kurma Purana of 17000 verses unity of Shiva and Vishnu and Nataraja. 15. Linga Purana of 10000 verses gives details of Astronomy and Astrophysics.16. Siva Purana of 24000 verses is written by Vayu Deva 17. Skanda Purana is written by Kumarswamy and 18. Agni Purana of 15400 verses is given by Vasishtha.

        The Vishnu Purana is a primary sacred text of the Vaishnava branch of Hinduism, which today probably has more adherents than any other. It is one of the canonical Puranas, a branch of post-Vedic sacred literature which was first committed to writing during the first millennium of the common era. Like most of the other Puranas, this is a complete narrative from the creation of the current universe to its destruction. The chronology describes periods as long as a hundred trillion (1014) years! There are fascinating descriptions of ancient Hindu cosmology and geography.

• According to Greek philosophers slavery did not exist in ancient India.

• India was known as golden bird because of her wealth. The later invaders came to India in search of wealth.

• Ancient Indians had a well developed concept of water harvesting. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra. This lake was called Sudarshana and built by the Shaka king, Rudradaman.

• Chess was a popular game in ancient India.

• The great physician of ancient India, Sushruta conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, stones, plastic surgery and brain surgery.

• Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India.

• "It was only after the eighth century BC, and doubtless due to the influence of the Indian Buddhist missionaries, that Chinese mathematicians introduced the use of zero in the form of a little circle or dot (signs that originated in India),...".

• Georges Ifrah:

Famed French scholar Georges Ifrah spent years travelling and studying the mystery of the evolution of numbers.

     Ifrah salutes the Indian researchers saying that the "...real inventors of this fundamental discovery, which is no less important than such feats as the mastery of fire, the development of agriculture, or the invention of the wheel, writing or the steam engine, were the mathematicians and astronomers of the Indian civilisation: scholars who, unlike the Greeks, were concerned with practical applications and who were motivated by a kind of passion for both numbers and numerical calculations."

     Ancient scriptures like Vaisheshika Darshan gives five types of action, and detailed notes of Mechanics etc. Prasistapada gives Gati-Sutras of motion i.e. Laws of Newton etc. This brings to the following observations. That British caught hold of the Laws of Nature, Gurutvakarshana, Calculus and Planetary Science. It is well known that U2-bombers were developed by Germans based on INTELLECT INDIA especially the Adharva Veda. The Portuguese caught hold of Phirangi (Canon) power and mounted them on their ships in large numbers. They have taken away, certain ancient knowledge of Metal processing and Canon fire manufacture from India. Gun powder by Swedish people that resulted in the creation of so-called Nobel Prize and French caught hold of Scent preparations, Ship building and especially Astrology for benefits in maritime war. Dutch acquired the mint technology ivory and other precious Materials processing. Other European invaders caught hold of the Alchemy of India developed by Nagarjuna and others.

10000BC to 2500BC : “Sarasvati Satah Sindhumata”


       An important River of India that has disappeared and facts about it have been virtually shattered away by the invaders of India is the SARSVATHI RIVER. Rig-Veda mentions it almost 72 times and specifically states “Sarasvati Satah Sindhumata” in 7.36.6 sloka. It might date back from BC 8000 to BC10000years ago. Sarsvathi is only one among the seven Rivers and Sarasvathi is the mother of them all. The Saptha Sindhus are 1. Sarasvathi. 2. Satadu (Sutlej) 3. Vipaga (Beas) 4. Askini (Chenab) 5. Aeroshini (Rabi) 6. Vitastha (Jhelum) 7. Sindhu (Indus). Of course, of all the seven the two Sarsvati and Sindu are mentioned as the mightiest. The word “saras” also means river of pools. Was the part of history of melting of Glaciers of Himalayas took place about 10,000 years ago? Does it really correspond to the ICE-AGE of earth? What was the material used for the construction of the Pyramids of the Egypt and China etc. Were the experts forced to move to the great construction sites and were made as a forced labor of hardship and as well intellect? Was the bone-medicinal practice was dominant with the object of rebirth on this Earth?

          The mention of Sarsvati River is in Anushasaka Parva of Mahabharata also it is said that the Kurukshetra (battle field) of Mahabharata was situated south of River Sarasvati MB AP-134-15. Balaram brother of Srikrishna made pilgrimages to various religious places on the river side of Sarsvati has been mentioned in 3-80-118, 9-36-1 and 3-130-4. Manusmruthi the first classification of a social discipline based on Professional Duties called the kula-dharma of Chaturvarna of India mentions Arya Vartha and the East of the River Sarsvati are known as Bharat Varta Ref MS-11-17-18 of Skanda Puranam. Recent remote sensing photography by Satellites showed the Palieo channels of the river flow and identified its hinterland. Beginning in Himalaya mountain ranges it flowed through Punjab, Sindu province, Rajasthan, Gujarat before merging in to Sea at Rann of Kutch. The alluvial soil deposits have been discovered recently. Recently the Saraswathi river tragedy was in the news mentioning the possibility of it as a small stream.(June 2013)

        There is possibility of the recent finding of the Pyramid Tombs of Chin, the 13years old King of China (like the Bharat of India) conquered all the seven kingdoms of the ancient Chain land and built for himself a great pyramid. This surprisingly dates back to 2500BC. The demise of the powerful king of great land and rise of Buddhism in India and the spread of it over South East Asia needs to be researched thoroughly to avoid misimpressions. The vanishing of the great Indus Civilization also falls almost the same period of world history of which the present author is not an expert.

Takshsila University

            Other names of ancient scholars of India are Pushymitra (185-149BC), Bhikshu Atreya, Jeevaki Buddha 6th BC and several others who were acharyas at Takshsila University during the time of Bimbhasara. There were many a scholars, during that period of ancient India, who have gained the INTELLECT INDIA knowledge, from Takshsila University (ruins now in Pakistan), and hailed from several Asian countries and the Moghuls of the west. An example of simple Indian Medicine was a specific flower the smell of it would act as a purgative. Lord Buddha was using it. The date of Takshila University is mentioned as 700BC determined by modern techniques. Much better research investigations need to be made since the Buddha lived during the years 2500BC. The university had 10,000 students and about 68 faculties such as mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, Art of Warfare, Vedas, Fine Arts, etc. Kautilya, Paninin, Jaimini, Vishusarma were students of this university. Pythagoras was supposed to have spent several years here. Obviously there must have been a Library of Ancient Manuscripts of outstanding nature giving details of INTELLECT INDIA. This was the time when a great movement of Emperor Chin was going on in China and University must have been devastated by the ruthless warriors of the defeated China seven kingdoms by the great Emperor Chin who was busy building his own Tomb as was the practice those days of belief of reincarnation as an Emperor again. Egyptians Kings were also busy those days building huge Pyramids that have employed an accurate geometry of moving tons of weighing big and huge rock blocks to form the Pyramid.

Indus River valley

Fig.2B Rock-Cut step Wells in India

           Rock-cut step wells in India date from 200-400 CE. Subsequently, the construction of wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) took place. The city of Mohen-jo-daro has wells which may be the predecessors of the step well. As many as 700 wells, constructed by 3rd millenium BCE, have been discovered in just one section of the city, leading scholars to believe that 'cylindrical brick lined wells' were invented by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.

        Large-scale sanitary ware systems were in place in the Indus Valley by 2700 BCE. The drains were 7–10 feet wide and 2 feet (0.61 m) below ground level. The sewage was then led into cesspools, built at the intersection of two drains, which had stairs leading to them for periodic cleaning. Plumbing using earthenware plumbing pipes with broad flanges for easy joining with asphalt to stop leaks was in place by 2700 BCE. Pramod Chandra (2008) details the Indus Valley architecture from 2500–1800 BCE: From excavated remains, it is clear that the Indus Valley civilization possessed a flourishing urban architecture. The major cities associated with the civilization, notably Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and Kalibangan, were laid out on a grid pattern and had provisions for an advanced drainage system. The residential buildings, which were serviceable enough, were mainly brick and consisted of an open patio flanked by rooms. For monumental architecture, the evidence is slight, the most important being a “sacred” tank (thought to be for ritual ablution) and associated structures. Corbel vaulting (arches supported by brackets projecting from the wall) was known, and, to a limited extent, timber was used together with brick; whatever architectural ornamentation existed must have been of brick or plaster. By 2800 BCE, private bathrooms, located on the ground floor, were found in nearly all the houses of the Indus Valley Civilization. The pottery pipes in walls allowed drainage of water and there was, in some case, provision of a crib for sitting. The Indus Valley Civilization had some of the most advanced private lavatories in the world. "Western-style" toilets were made from bricks using toilet seats made of coal on top. The waste was then transmitted to drainage systems. Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including the artificial reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. Excavated ruins, Mohenjo-daro. Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used arched windows and doors are important features of the architecture during this period.

The Indus Civilization

           There are now about 1,200 illustrated pages, by leading scholars around the world, of the ancient Indus Civilization.

             Fig.3 Outstanding images of Harappa ca 2500 Hand modeled terra-cotta figurines.

Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy.

            By far the most exquisite and obscure artefacts unearthed to date are the small, square steatite (soapstone) seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Many bear pictographic inscriptions generally thought to be a form of writing or script. Despite the efforts of philologists from all parts of the world, and despite the use of modern cryptographic analysis, the signs remain undeciphered. It is also unknown if they reflect proto-dravidian or other non-Vedic language(s). The ascription of Indus Valley Civilization iconography and epigraphy to historically known cultures is extremely problematic, in part due to the rather tenuous archaeological evidence of such claims, as well as the projection of modern South Asian political concerns onto the archaeological record of the area. This is especially evident in the radically varying interpretations of Harappan material culture as seen from both Pakistan and India-based scholars.

Fig.4 Large Deep Vessel circa 2500BCE Red Pottery Brooklyn Museum.

Harappa. Fragment of Large Deep Vessel, circa 2500 B.C.E. Red pottery with red and black slip-painted decoration, 4 15/16 x 6 1/8 in. (12.5 x 15.5 cm). Brooklyn Museum

• The earliest radiocarbon dating mentioned on the web is 2725+-185 BCE (uncalibrated) or 3338, 3213, 3203 BCE calibrated, giving a midpoint of 3251 BCE. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991) Urban process in the Indus Tradition: A preliminary report. In Harappa Excavations, 1986-1990: A multidisciplinary approach to Second Millennium urbanism, edited by Richard H. Meadow: 29-59. Monographs in World Archaeology No.3. Prehistory Press, Madison Wisconsin.

• Periods 4 and 5 are not dated at Harappa. The termination of the Harappan tradition at Harappa falls between 1900 and 1500 BCE.

• Mohanjo-daro is another major city of the same period, located in Sindh province of Pakistan. One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro.

• Dholavira is an ancient Metropolitan City. The Harappans used roughly the same size bricks and weights as were used in other Indus cities, such as Mohenjo Daro and Dholavira. These cities were well planned with wide streets, public and private wells, drains, bathing platforms and reservoirs.

Brahmi script people have used a system of numbers specification based on 60. For example they wrote 362=1x60+2x60+3x60+2.
           The people of India have had a continuous civilization since 10,000 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. This civilization declined around 2500 B.C., probably due to ecological or changes of bitter wars and total annihilations of culture and the people of neighbor countries by the mighty Emperors. Most of northern India was inhabited and had been brought under cultivation, facilitating the increasing knowledge of the use of iron implements, including ox-drawn plows, and spurred by the growing population that provided voluntary help in agriculture. Many artifacts, tools, terracotta materials and metallic utensils that were found during the excavations reveal the advanced civilization and the culture of Lothal. Buddha influence was not present in this civilization.

The Decimal System in Harappa

         In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappa period, as indicated by an analysis of Harappa weights and measures. Weights corresponding to ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 have been identified, as have scales with decimal divisions. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappa weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. A bronze rod marked in units of 0.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other, for drains to be constructed of precise measurements, and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappa society. The German Schelegal’s History of Literature p.126 expresses the fact that Indians discovered the decimal system. Imperial Gazetteer of India p.129 by W W Hunter gives the amazing counting of number system up to tenth to the power 32by Indians as well the formulation of Algebra methods of analysis.

Fig.5B Oldest Port World’s Lothal in India

              Before 2000yrs ago to Pythagoras the Harappa people were aware of the mathematical formula known as Sulabha Sutras. Pythogeres thermo was first stated by Baudhyana which was used also in constructing the Vedic alters in Harappa. Moniear Williams in Indian Wisdom p.185 specifies that INTELLECT INDIA was responsible to invent methods of association of Algebra and Geometry with the Astronomy.

              Nagarjunas Rasa(alchemy) Siddhanta, Kannada Nuclear and Atomic view point of Nature (Anu siddhantha), Yukthakalpi Tharuvu book giving details of ship building for maritime battles, Bhojas Samaraanga suthra dhara (methods of warfare) and Aero plane construction, Aspects of Solar absorption and potential details given in the book Anshubhodhini by Bharadwaja, Water and its power by refraction etc., given in the book Apththvaprakashika, Atri Maharishi Oshadhee-kalpam (Medicinal Science) book, Physical aspects of material science in books “Dhathu sarvasvam, deepavivekam, Cloud generation by Angareesudu in the book Megho’utpathi, Narada wriiten book Dhumaprakarana(comets etc) Sakatayana Loha sangritha,Loha tantram, book giving data of metal and alloys processes, Bhardwajas Rupajaeshana tantra (photography), Vaidhyana charakaram and sushritam etc books speak volumes about the ancient INTELLECT INDIA.

               The Bricks walls of Mohan-ja-Daro –strong and everlasting INTELLECT INDIA made Building products. The Granary, the bath tubs, lakes, city water stream flow channels, the houses, the public places, and construction technology is unparallel to date in the Universe History. There cannot be a claim by the Greek, Egyptian or the So-called Aryan migration theories stand to the testimony of the script, the seals and the very high order of appropriate technology used by the Harappa and Mahan-ja-Daro civilizations of total India original. 800 year old Chandragiri fort near Tirupati Andhra Pradesh is an example of no steel or wood had been used, for constructing this multistoried building, and only lime stone mortar was used. The 31st or 32nd descendent of Abhimanyu, the Son of Arjuna of Mahabharat is mentioned to be Sudas of 3700BC. After all, pyramids date back to hardly 2700BC. Volcanic eruption or water resource failure was now thought knowledge of why this civilization of India totally disappeared. The neighboring Akkadiana civilization collapsed due to water shortage

Ancient Indian Mathematicians and Their Teachings:

Baudhayana (800 BC to about 740 BC)

                 Nothing much is known about Baudhayana, apart from the fact that he was a priest and a skilled craftsman. His interest in mathematics must have purely for ritualistic practices like construction of altars for sacrifices and mundane needs of a craftsman. In the Sulbasutra of which he was the earliest contributor, we find geometric solutions to linear equations of a single unknowns and approximate values of √2 correct to five decimal places. Though there are several values of π mentioned in Baudhayana's Sulbasutra, the nearest is 900/289 = 3.114

Manava (750 BC - about 690 BC)

Manava Sulbasutra was not only brought out much later than Baudhayana’s Sulbasutra, but is also a minor one. His work contains approximate constructions of circles from rectangles, and squares from circles. In Manava’s works he was able to calculate the value of π = 25/8 = 3.125.

Apastamba (600 BC - about 540 BC)

                     Like Budhayana and Apastamba, is a shadowy figure of antiquity about whose personal life nothing much is known. In his version of Sulvasutra, there are six chapters and he was able to solve the The general linear equation 1 + 1/3 + 1/(34) - 1/(3434). In his work he also tries to dividing a segment into 7 equal parts and attempted the problem of problem of squaring the circle.

Panini (520 BC to about 460 BC)

                    Eminent linguist L. Bloomfield described Panini in his book Language as "the greatest monument of human intelligence".
                    Panini was born in Shalatula a town on the banks of the river Indus which is now in modern Pakistan. He was a Sanskrit grammarian whose major contributions were in the field of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. Panini's grammar is written in a sutra style. The term sutra means string or thread. It represents a particular type of style in Sanskrit literature. The definition of sutra is follows:

                “alpaaksaram asandigdham shaasvad vishvatomukham

                  aStobham anavadyam ca sUtram sUtravido viduh “

                      Much of the algebraic nature of Indian Mathematics arose as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. Mathematics in fact was an outcome of linguistic developments in India and Panini laid down the formal rules and definitions of Sanskrit grammar which gave it its linguistic perfection.

                     Panini's major work is a treatise called Astadhyayi (or Astaka ) . Panini was a forerunner of the modern formal language theory used to specify computer languages. Though The Backus Normal Form was discovered independently by John Backus in 1959, Panini’s notation is equivalent in its power to that of Backus and has many similar properties.

Fig.6B Panini's major work is a treatise called Astadhyayi (or Astaka )

Ancient Indian Mathematicians and Their Teachings

                 Various concepts propounded by Indian mathematicians which are very useful even today. Mahavira gave the sum of a series whose terms are squares of an arithmetical progression and empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse. Mahavira's from Gulbarga, eminence spread all over India. One of his teachings gives us Formula for cyclic quadrilateral. He established equations for the sides and diagonal of Cyclic Quadrilateral. Definition of Cyclic Quadrilateral: a cyclic quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle. In a cyclic quadrilateral, opposite angles are supplementary (their sum is π radians or 180°). Alternatively, each exterior angle is equal to the opposite interior angle.

                     If sides of Cyclic Quadrilateral are a, b, c, d and its diagonals are x and y while

                                             Then, xy = ac + bd

                     Indian mathematicians also used negative numbers long before Western civilisations. An ancient manuscript from 200 BC shows that they used to use the + sign that we now associate with addition and positive numbers, - to denote a negative number. The ancient Greeks also dismissed any solutions to equations that came out negative. They called them "absurd" and "impossible" and completely ignored them. They couldn't see how a negative answer could be meaningful, because it was not possible to have a quantity that was less than nothing. This opinion was passed down to later mathematicians in Europe for more than a thousand years, so very little progress in negative number arithmetic was made for a long time. Negatiopn is a concept well known in Vedas. Obviously it is the origin of negative numbers if not, discovered them.

In 1759 Francis Meseres wrote that negative numbers:

"darken the very whole doctrines of the equations and to make dark of the things which are in their nature excessively obvious and simple. It would have been desirable in consequence that the negative roots were never allowed in algebra or that they were discarded".
                     Even as late as 1803 the famous French mathematician Carnot was worried about the reality of negative numbers:   
              "to really obtain an isolated negative quantity, it would be necessary to cut off an effective quantity from zero, to remove something of nothing: impossible operation. How thus to conceive an isolated negative quantity?"
                 Nowadays we use negative numbers in many contexts and, as a result, they seem perfectly natural to us. That's because we've been taught to see numbers as a continuous number line, stretching out from zero in both the positive and negative directions. To us, -3 is just as real as +3 is, but this was not always the case. Negative numbers have only fairly recently become accepted as part of the system of numbers that mathematicians are allowed to use. While a great deal of very advanced mathematics was developed by INTELLECT INDIA, mathematicians in most cultures had no understanding of what a negative number could mean.

              Among the earliest people to use negative numbers in calculations were the ancient Indus Valley civilization.. They used counting rods to perform calculations, with red rods for positive numbers and black rods for negative numbers. The example below shows some numerals represented by rods, and the diagram on the right shows which numbers these symbols represent.
Their yoga-veda symbols reveal a lot more than what western people want to admit INTELLECT INDIA.

Fig.7B Vedic Mathematics

                The Vedic mathematics of quick methods of multiplications adopted geometric patterns and their intersection points to indicate the product. Example, 123x321 pattern with say; one, two and three separated vertical lines drawn and then,the three, two and one horizontal lines drawn across the verticals, gives the cross points whose number arrangement gives the product. Arrangement of the numbers is a consequence of the Lime drawings drawn in front of every village home by children to educate themselves in an abstract world of experience in a conscious method of experiencing physical reality. Pattern making is an art in India that every child and house wife knows and in INDIA the first game of mathematics taught to children is by the playing the game of tamrind seeds patterns and arrangements. At the age of three years it seems Sita (of Rama) played the ball game of throw and catch.

History of Mathematics in India

              In India, almost everything was in place to favor such a development of Numerals for use mainly in Astronomy and secondly in Trade and Commerce. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers, and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. Panini's studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture have also provided an impetus, as the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras, and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning.

            Arithmetic operations (Ganit) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots are enumerated in the Narad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas (pre-1000 BC). Examples of geometric knowledge (rekha-ganit) are to be found in the Sulva-Sutras of Baudhayana (800 BC) and Apasthmaba (600 BC) which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. It is likely that these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may have been acquired much earlier, possibly in the Harappan period. Baudhayana's Sutra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of converting one geometric shape (such as a rectangle) to another of equivalent (or multiple, or fractional) area (such as a square). While some of the formulations are approximations, others are accurate and reveal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles. Modern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the Sulva-Sutras.

                 Pythagoras - the Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived in the 6th C B.C was familiar with the Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulva Sutras. An early statement of what is commonly known as the Pythagoras theorem is to be found in Baudhayana's Sutra: The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size. A similar observation pertaining to oblongs is also noted. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown. Examples of quadratic equations also appear. Apasthamba's sutra (an expansion of Baudhayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2 that is accurate to the fifth decimal place. Apasthamba also looked at the problems of squaring a circle, dividing a segment into seven equal parts, and a solution to the general linear equation. Jain texts from the 6th C BC such as the Surya Pragyapti describe ellipses.

                Modern-day commentators are divided on how some of the results were generated. Some believe that these results came about through hit and trial - as rules of thumb, or as generalizations of observed examples. Others believe that once the scientific method came to be formalized in the Nyaya-Sutras - proofs for such results must have been provided, but these have either been lost or destroyed, or else were transmitted orally through the Gurukul system, and only the final results were tabulated in the texts. In any case, the study of Ganit i.e mathematics was given considerable importance in the Vedic period. The Vedang Jyotish (1000 BC) includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the jewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body (at the forehead), similarly, the position of Ganit is the highest amongst all branches of the Vedas and the Shastras."

             (Many centuries later, Jain mathematician from Mysore, Mahaviracharya further emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world, cannot be understood without the base of Ganit (i.e. mathematics)".)

Panini and Formal Scientific Notation

            A particularly important development in the history of Indian science that was to have a profound impact on all mathematical treatises that followed was the pioneering work by Panini (6th C BC) in the field of Sanskrit grammar and linguistics. Besides expounding a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology and morphology, Panini provided formal production rules and definitions describing Sanskrit grammar in his treatise called Asthadhyayi. Basic elements such as vowels and consonants, parts of speech such as nouns and verbs were placed in classes. The construction of compound words and sentences was elaborated through ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to formal language theory.

         Today, Panini's constructions can also be seen as comparable to modern definitions of a mathematical function. G G Joseph, in The crest of the peacock argues that the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arises as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. Ingerman in his paper titled Panini-Backus form finds Panini's notation to be equivalent in its power to that of Backus - inventor of the Backus Normal Form used to describe the syntax of modern computer languages. Thus Panini's work provided an example of a scientific notational model that could have propelled later mathematicians to use abstract notations in characterizing algebraic equations and presenting algebraic theorems and results in a scientific format.

Philosophy and Mathematics

             Philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the development of mathematical concepts and formulations. Like the Upanishadic world view, space and time were considered limitless in Jain cosmology. This led to a deep interest in very large numbers and definitions of infinite numbers. Infinite numbers were created through recursive formulae, as in the Anuyoga Dwara Sutra. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: infinite in one direction, in two directions, in area, infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. Permutations and combinations are listed in the Bhagvati Sutras (3rd C BC) and Sathananga Sutra (2nd C BC).

         Jain set theory probably arose in parallel with the Syadvada system of Jain epistemology in which reality was described in terms of pairs of truth conditions and state changes. The Anuyoga Dwara Sutra demonstrates an understanding of the law of indeces and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms. Terms like Ardh Aached , Trik Aached, and Chatur Aached are used to denote log base 2, log base 3 and log base 4 respectively. In Satkhandagama various sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two, by squaring and extracting square roots, and by raising to finite or infinite powers. The operations are repeated to produce new sets. In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted.

        Since Jain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality, it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers.

              Buddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. Buddhist mathematics was classified either as Garna (Simple Mathematics) or Sankhyan (Higher Mathematics). Numbers were deemed to be of three types: Sankheya (countable), Asankheya (uncountable) and Anant (infinite).

              Philosophical formulations concerning Shunya - i.e. emptiness or the void may have facilitated in the introduction of the concept of zero. While the zero (bindu) as an empty place holder in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier, algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta in the 7th C AD. Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for zero came to be used in numeric notation in India, (Ifrah arguing that the use of zero is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the zero begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period. Between the 7th C and the 11th C, Indian numerals developed into their modern form, and along with the symbols denoting various mathematical functions (such as plus, minus, square root etc) eventually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation.

The Indian Numeral System

         Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system, the Chinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system, and it was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been accepted as universal. Several factors contributed to this development whose significance is perhaps best stated by French mathematician, Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions."

       Brilliant as it was, this invention was no accident. In the Western world, the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle, and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. But in India, almost everything was in place to favor such a development. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers, and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. Panini's studies in linguistic theory, formal language, his powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture might have also provided an impetus, as might have the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras, and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning.

Influence of Trade and Commerce, Importance of Astronomy

            The growth of trade and commerce, particularly lending and borrowing demanded an understanding of both simple and compound interest which probably stimulated the interest in arithmetic and geometric series. Brahmagupta's description of negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to a link between trade and mathematical study. Knowledge of astronomy - particularly knowledge of the tides and the stars was of great import to trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night. This is borne out by numerous references in the Jataka tales and several other folk-tales. The young person who wished to embark on a commercial venture was inevitably required to first gain some grounding in astronomy. This led to a proliferation of teachers of astronomy, who in turn received training at universities such as at Kusumpura (Bihar) or Ujjain (Central India) or at smaller local colleges or Gurukuls. This also led to the exchange of texts on astronomy and mathematics amongst scholars and the transmission of knowledge from one part of India to another. Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication.

         The Science of Astronomy was also spurred by the need to have accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. At the same time, religion and astrology also played a role in creating an interest in astronomy and a negative fallout of this irrational influence was the rejection of scientific theories that were far ahead of their time. One of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period - Aryabhatta (born in 476 AD, Kusumpura, Bihar) provided a systematic treatment of the position of the planets in space. He correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth, and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses rejecting the superstitions and mythical belief systems surrounding the phenomenon. Although Bhaskar I (born Saurashtra, 6th C, and follower of the Asmaka school of science, Nizamabad, Andhra ) recognized his genius and the tremendous value of his scientific contributions, some later astronomers continued to believe in a static earth and rejected his rational explanations of the eclipses. But in spite of such setbacks, Aryabhatta had a profound influence on the astronomers and mathematicians who followed him, particularly on those from the Asmaka school.

         In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse, Aryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals - i.e. tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal, or near instantaneous motion of the moon, and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. Aryabhatta's equations were elaborated on by Manjula (10th C) and Bhaskaracharya (12th C) who derived the differential of the sine function. Later mathematicians used their intuitive understanding of integration in deriving the areas of curved surfaces and the volumes enclosed by them.

         In the late 9th C, Sridhara (probably Bengal) provided mathematical formulae for a variety of practical problems involving ratios, barter, simple interest, mixtures, purchase and sale, rates of travel, wages, and filling of cisterns. Some of these examples involved fairly complicated solutions and his Patiganita is considered an advanced mathematical work. Sections of the book were also devoted to arithmetic and geometric progressions, including progressions with fractional numbers or terms, and formulas for the sum of certain finite series are provided. Mathematical investigation continued into the 10th C. Vijayanandi (of Benares, whose Karanatilaka was translated by Al-Beruni into Arabic) and Sripati of Maharashtra are amongst the prominent mathematicians of the century. Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. Yativrsabha's work Tiloyapannatti (6th C) gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.

           In the 9th C, Mahaviracharya ( Mysore) wrote Ganit Saar Sangraha where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by Brahmagupta) The solution of indeterminate equations also drew considerable interest in the 9th century, and several mathematicians contributed approximations and solutions to different types of indeterminate equations.

          The leading light of 12th C Indian mathematics was Bhaskaracharya who came from a long-line of mathematicians and was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain. He left several important mathematical texts including the Lilavati and Bijaganita and the Siddhanta Shiromani, an astronomical text. He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries, and in his Siddhanta Shiromani he postulated that the earth had a gravitational force, and broached the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. In the second part of this treatise, there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and it's properties and applications to geography, planetary mean motion, eccentric epicyclical model of the planets, first visibilities of the planets, the seasons, the lunar crescent etc. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry. Of particular interest are his trigonometric equations:

                                 sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b; 
                       sin(a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b;

            Scholars such as Ibn Tariq and Al-Fazari (8th C, Baghdad), Al-Kindi (9th C, Basra), Al-Khwarizmi (9th C. Khiva), Al-Qayarawani (9th C, Maghreb, author of Kitab fi al-hisab al-hindi), Al-Uqlidisi (10th C, Damascus, author of The book of Chapters in Indian Arithmetic), Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), Ibn al-Samh (Granada, 11th C, Spain), Al-Nasawi (Khurasan, 11th C, Persia), Al-Beruni (11th C, born Khiva, died Afghanistan), Al-Razi (Teheran), and Ibn-Al-Saffar (11th C, Cordoba) were amongst the many who based their own scientific texts on translations of Indian treatises. Records of the Indian origin of many proofs, concepts and formulations were obscured in the later centuries, but the enormous contributions of Indian mathematics was generously acknowledged by several important Arabic and Persian scholars, especially in Spain. Abbasid scholar Al-Gaheth wrote:"India is the source of knowledge, thought and insight”. Al-Maoudi (956 AD) who travelled in Western India also wrote about the greatness of Indian science. Said Al-Andalusi, an 11th C Spanish scholar and court historian was amongst the most enthusiastic in his praise of Indian civilization, and specially remarked on Indian achievements in the sciences and in mathematics. Of course, eventually, Indian algebra and trigonometry reached Europe through a cycle of translations, traveling from the Arab world to Spain and Sicily, and eventually penetrating all of Europe.

Mathematics and Music: 
Pingala (3rd C AD), author of Chandasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory:

                Benaras survived as a center for mathematical study, and an important school of mathematics blossomed in Kerala. Madhava (14th C, Kochi) made important mathematical discoveries that would not be identified by European mathematicians till at least two centuries later. His series expansion of the cos and sine functions anticipated Newton by almost three centuries. Historians of mathematics, Rajagopal, Rangachari and Joseph considered his contributions instrumental in taking mathematics to the next stage, that of modern classical analysis. Nilkantha (15th C, Tirur, Kerala) extended and elaborated upon the results of Madhava while Jyesthadeva (16th C, Kerala) provided detailed proofs of the theorems and derivations of the rules contained in the works of Madhava and Nilkantha. It is also notable that Jyesthadeva's Yuktibhasa which contained commentaries on Nilkantha's Tantrasamgraha included elaborations on planetary theory later adopted by Tycho Brahe, and mathematics that anticipated work by later Europeans. Chitrabhanu (16th C, Kerala) gave integer solutions to twenty-one types of systems of two algebraic equations, using both algebraic and geometric methods in developing his results. Important discoveries by the Kerala mathematicians included the Newton-Gauss interpolation formula, the formula for the sum of an infinite series, and a series notation for pi. Charles Whish (1835, published in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) was one of the first Westerners to recognize that the Kerala school had anticipated by almost 300 years many European developments in the field.

               Influence of the Kerala School: Joseph (Crest of the Peacock) suggests that Indian mathematical manuscripts may have been brought to Europe by Jesuit priests such as Matteo Ricci who spent two years in Kochi (Cochin) after being ordained in Goa in 1580. Kochi is only 70km from Thrissur (Trichur) which was then the largest repository of astronomical documents. Whish and Hyne - two European mathematicians obtained their copies of works by the Kerala mathematicians from Thrissur, and it is not inconceivable that Jesuit monks may have also taken copies to Pisa (where Galileo, Cavalieri and Wallis spent time), or Padau (where James Gregory studied) or Paris (where Mersenne who was in touch with Fermat and Pascal, acted as an agent for the transmission of mathematical ideas).


               Shipbuilding was one of India's major export industries until the British dismantled it and formally banned it. Medieval Arab sailors purchased their boats in India. The Portuguese also continued to get their boats from India and not Europe. Some of the world's largest and most sophisticated ships were built in India and China.

               The compass and other navigation tools were already in use in the Indian Ocean long before Europe. (“Nav” is the Sanskrit word for boat, and is the root word in “navigation” and “navy”. In Tlugu language recently claimed to have an origin during the Brahmi script of Indus –Saraswati valley civilization has the beautiful word NAVA for a ship.) Using their expertise in the science of seafaring, Indians participated in the earliest-known ocean-based trading system.

             Few people know that an Indian naval pilot, named Kanha, was hired by Vasco da Gama to captain his ships and take him to India. Some of Europe's acclaimed “discoveries” in navigation were in fact appropriations of a well-established thriving trade system in the Indian Ocean. Contrary to European portrayals that Indians knew only coastal navigation, deep-sea shipping had existed in India as Indian ships had been sailing to islands such as the Andamans, Lakshdweep and Maldives around 2,000 years ago. Kautilya describes the times that are good and bad for seafaring. There is also extensive archival material on the Indian Ocean trade in Greek, Roman, and Southeast Asian sources.They have crossed the great Pacific Ocean and migrated even to South America and Preu Islands etc. Sa faring warrior race called Samudhra Gupta had also minted coins in his name and proves the Ocean Power of Navigation possessed by the INTELLECT INDIA.

MAYAN and INCA cultures part of ancient Indus valley of INTELLECT INDIA

Fig.9B Inca and Mayan Sites

Fig.10B Silpi Ganapathi Stapathi

Fig.8B  Mayan and Inca Part of Ancient Indus Valley of INTELLECT INDIA

Fig.8 , Fig9 and Fig.10

                  Sri Ganapathi Sthpati (died on 13th Sept 2011 at the age 84 years) Indian authority on architecture and builder of Ancient style temples numbering about 600, during the years 1995, visited the Inca and Mayan sites. He was amazed at how the Vaastu Sastra measurements were found there. The wall thickness he realized as kishku hasta i.e. 33 inches a standard measurement followed in Vaastu sastra. That means Vaastu sastra of Indus civilization and the Inca and Mayan civilizations were almost parallel and were the exported knowledge of the ancient INTELLECT INDIA. Vaastu Purna mandala Mayan have used 8x8 square total 64 units of modular construction and building. The Vaastu Vedic principle of Temple i.e., structure top exactly ¼ of the base. Pyramids had 8x8 square modular unit blocks built. The walls of Inca are so symmetrical in built thatNo mortar used, not enough space to slide a sheet of paper between the stones. Similar constructions I have found in the Panhal fort in Maharashtra State dating back to Paitan capital Salivahana and Saka rulers of the 1st century BC in India.

                 The most amazing thing that in the summer of Equinox March 21st, 1995, at Chichi Itza Mexico, Yucatan peninsula, at the moment of Sun set the Indian Shilpi Sri Gargsthpati, found a shadow cast on steps of the Pyramids of the Castle where the shadow can be seen upon the side of the stair case an image of a Serpents body, which joins a stone curving of a serpant’s head at the bottom of the stair case.

                  This establishes the fact that Astronomy, Architecture and Optical projections all are known to such a high degree of accuracy that the celestial stars positions could be predicted and ascertained with great perfection of Mathematics, Science & Technology. Indus Valley civilization used the Jupiter movements, while the Mayan civilization used the Venus movements in their respective calendar calculations.(see Hyderabad, Deccan Chronical Newspaper dated April 29th, 2002 and Hindustan Today. Also the word chilambalam, a place of worship of the “SPACE”, is similar in construction and position on the temple like the South India temple of Chidamabaram, where the place of interior room is left with no idol just to worship “AKASH”. The mystical terms this is Hall of Consciousness as per a Silpi in India.

The Mayan calendar begins around 3114 BC

                    The Long Count, which is a measure 1,872,000 days long or 5125.2661 years. Dec. 21, 2012 is the day the Long Count cycle ends and a new cycle of the same duration begins.

Fig.11B Mayana Calendar dated 3114BC

                  "Part of Mayan Calendar" La Mojarra Stela with Long date inscript. The left column gives a Long Count date of, or 156 CE. CE stand for Current Era or 156 AD. Glyphs either represent syllables or whole concepts and were written on long strips of paper or carved and painted on stone. They are arranged to be red from left to right and top to bottom in pairs of columns. The Mayan calendar begins around 3114 BC, before Maya culture existed, and could measure time well into the future. They wrote detailed histories and used their calendar to predict the future and astrological events. Fray Diego de Landa, second bishop of the Yucat n ordered a mass destruction of Mayan books in 1562 and only three survived. He destroyed huge temples, smashed idols and melted down many a Gold and Silver Icons to steal them away. If the Spanish did not make it a policy to kill all of the Mayan priests and burn books when they arrived in Mexico, we would all have a few more answers. Thanks to many drawings, we can corroborate several stories that have been told from fathers to sons through generations of oral tradition. The largest cultural development of the Maya Indians took place in 125000 sq.miles on south Honduras and Guatemala, as well as in the Yucatán peninsula, campecta, Tabasco, Eastern half of Chiopes, in Mexico. Their achievements in astronomy were superb. They stories relate to the people who have migrated from Nagaland of India. And the main sect is Kekichi Maya. They developed the Mayan Calendar, which is actually a set of several different calendars. Their legacy also consists on a very complex writing system, maybe the most difficult one of the ancient world. Hermndos Cortez slaghutered in just less than 2 hours time, some 6000 people of Mayan in the Temple Patio. He resolved to the destruction of Aztec Cities. The Maya disappeared for reasons that remain unknown, but Maya traditions are still present in the population of Mexico, who still wear clothes colored like the ancient Maya clothing, and who have incorporated several pagan deities.
              Ephrain George Squre 1821-1888AD, US Charge d’affairs to Central America in 1849 said Java, India, Mexico a proper examination of these countries discloses that exterior form and as well as in their interior forms of Temples, made for obvious purposes, these buildings ( palaces, places of worship, Mecico) correspond with great exactness to thopse of Hindustan.

               Robert Aleine Geldon & Gordon F. E. Kholn have said that ”Ships of size that carried Fahien from India to China (through stormy waters) were certainly capable of proceeding all the way to Mexico or Peru by crossing Pacific. One thousand years before the birth of Columbus Indian Ships were far superior to any made in Europe up to the 1800AD.”

Inca rule

             Under Inca rule, Andean civilization flowered as never before. Inca engineers transformed fragmentary road networks into interconnected highways. Inca farmers mastered high-altitude agriculture, cultivating some 70 different native crops and often stockpiling three to seven years' worth of food in vast storage complexes. Imperial officials excelled at the art of inventory control, tracking storehouse contents across the realm with an ancient Andean form of computer code—colored and knotted cords known as quipus. And Inca masons raised timeless architectural masterpieces like Machu Picchu, which continues to awe visitors today.

             By the time the Inca king Huayna Capac took power around 1493, little seemed beyond the reach of the Inca dynasty. To bring grandeur to his new capital in Ecuador, Huayna Capac put more than 4,500 rebellious subjects to work hauling immense stone blocks all the way from Cusco—a distance of nearly a thousand miles up and down vertiginous mountain roads. And in the Inca heartland, a small army of men and women toiled to construct a royal estate for Huayna Capac and his family. At the king's bidding, they moved the Urubamba River to the southern side of the valley. They leveled hills and drained marshes, then planted corn and other crops such as cotton, peanuts, and hot peppers from far corners of the empire. In the center of the estate, they laid stones and bricks for Huayna Capac's new country palace, Quispiguanca.

            As the late afternoon sun slants down, I wander the ruins of Quispiguanca with Alan Covey, the archaeologist from SMU. Situated on the outskirts of the modern town of Urubamba, Quispiguanca basks in one of the warmest and sunniest microclimates in the region, which provided the Inca royal family a welcome escape from the cold of Cusco. The estate's gatehouses now look out on a field of pungent cilantro, and its surviving walls enclose a royal compound that once sprawled over an area equivalent to some seven soccer fields.

             Encircled by parkland, fields, and gardens, Quispiguanca was an Inca version of Camp David, a retreat from the world, a place for a warrior-king to unwind after military campaigning. Here Huayna Capac entertained guests in the great halls and gambled with courtiers and other favorites, while his queen gardened and tended doves. The grounds boasted a secluded lodge and a forest reserved for hunting deer and other game. In the fields hundreds of workers cleared irrigation channels, raised and mended terrace walls, and sowed corn and a host of exotic crops. These provided Huayna Capac with bountiful harvests and enough corn beer to entertain his subjects royally during Cusco's annual festivals.

           Quispiguanca was not the only spectacular estate. Inca kings inherited little more than their titles, so each new sovereign built a city palace and country home for himself and his lineage shortly after assuming power. To date archaeologists and historians have located ruins of roughly a dozen royal estates built by at least six Inca kings.

              Even after these kings died, they remained the powers behind the throne. "The ancestors were a key element of Andean life," says Sonia Guillén, director of Peru's Museo Leymebamba. When Huayna Capac perished of a mysterious disease in Ecuador around 1527, retainers mummified his body and carried it back to Cusco. Members of the royal family frequently visited the deceased monarch, asking his advice on vital matters and heeding the replies given by an oracle sitting at his side. Years after his death, Huayna Capac remained the owner of Quispiguanca and the surrounding estate. Indeed, royal tradition dictated that its harvest keep his mummy, servants, wives, and descendants in style for eternity.

              It was during the rainy season in 1533, an auspicious time for a coronation, and thousands of people were packed into the main plaza of Cusco to celebrate the arrival of their new teenage king. Two years earlier, amid a civil war, foreign invaders had landed in the north. Metal-clad and bearing lethal new weapons, the Spaniards had journeyed to the northern Inca town of Cajamarca, where they took prisoner the Inca king, Atahuallpa. Eight months later, they executed their royal captive, and in 1533 their leader, Francisco Pizarro, picked a young prince, Manco Inca Yupanqui, to rule as a puppet king.

            In the far distance, voices of the young king's bearers echoed through the streets, singing songs of praise. Falling silent, celebrants watched the royal teenager enter the square, accompanied by the mummies of his ancestors, each richly attired and seated on a splendid litter. The wizened kings and their consorts reminded all that Manco Inca descended from a long line of kings. Rulers of other realms might content themselves with displaying carved or painted images of their glorious ancestors. The Inca kings went one better, displaying the expertly preserved bodies of their forefathers.

           In the months that followed, the Spanish invaders seized the palaces of Cusco and the spacious country estates and took royal women as mistresses and wives. Incensed, Manco Inca rebelled and in 1536 tried to drive them from the realm. When his army suffered defeat, he fled Cusco for the jungle city of Vilcabamba, from which he launched guerrilla attacks. The Spanish wouldn't subdue the stronghold until 1572AD.

           In the turmoil of those decades, the Inca's sprawling network of roads, storehouses, temples, and estates began slowly falling into ruin. As the empire crumbled, the Inca and their descendants made a valiant attempt to preserve the symbols of imperial authority. Servants collected the precious bodies of the sacred kings and concealed them around Cusco, where they were worshipped in secret—and in defiance of Spanish priests. In 1559AD Cusco's chief magistrate, Juan Polo de Ondegardo, resolved to stamp out this idolatry. He launched an official search for the bodies, questioning hundreds. With this information he tracked down and seized the remains of 11 Inca kings and several queens.

         For a time colonial officials in Lima displayed the mummies of Pachacutec, Huayna Capac, and two other royals as curiosities in the Hospital of San Andrés in Lima, a facility that admitted only European patients. But the damp coastal climate wreaked havoc with the bodies. So, Spanish officials buried the greatest of the Inca kings in secrecy in Lima, far from the people of Andes, who loved and worshipped them. 

         "Can you imagine," Bauer asks, "how American citizens would feel if the British had taken the bodies of the first several presidents back to London during the War of 1812?" Today no one can say where Peru's greatest kings lie. Concludes Bauer sadly, "The fate of the royal Inca mummies remains unknown." The Inca had no system of hieroglyphic writing, as the Maya did, and any portraits that Inca artists may have made of their rulers were lost.

          Like the Indus Saraswathi Civilization, the Maya used the word “chacla”, forces of body centres, similar to “Chakras” of India thought, “Kultanlilni”, the word akin to “Kundalini”, and “Yokhah” almost the same as the word “Yoga”. Surya Siddhanta describes Pataldesh as in clear terms to refer Mexico in the Chap XII on Geography. Inca have a Sun based Calendar and America is refered as “Kuruvansha” meaning place of Gold and Silver. While Argentine known for its silver and the Mahabharat king “Arjuna” of silver hue personality.

          Sir William Jones (1746-1794AD) “It was remarkable the Purvians whose Incas boasted of some descent, styled their greatest festival Ram-Sitva whence we may take it that South America was of people of the same race who imported into the farthest parts of Asia the rites, and the history of Rama.

           The victory of good over evil is epitomized in the epic Ramayana, and the Ramayana recounts the kidnapping of Sita, Rama's wife, by Ravana, a demonic king of Sri Lanka her rescue by her husband, aided by his devotional and faithful allies, and Rama's coronation, leading to a period of prosperity and justice. The Rama Raj as it was subsequently referred survived for about 11,000years of legacy and rule of Dharma. Another epic, Mahabharata (Great Battle of the Descendants of a King), spells out the concept of Dharma and duty. The Mahabharata records the feud between brotherly cousins of a ruling family of King of the Jambhudweep that culminated in an epic battle in which both gods and mortals from many lands allegedly fought to the death. Even in the late twenty first century, these epics remain dear to the hearts of many Indians and are commonly read and enacted in many settings of multimedia presentations like the TV, Cinema and Videos. The doubts in some of the stories depicted in Ramayana and Mahabharatam may be rectified by referring to a book Yogavasistam which gives the secrets of lives of Markandeya and Valmiki.

           The rudimentary administrative system headed by “Vanvashis” warrior rulers and “Manyam” Chieftains kingdoms, was transformed by a number of regional republics or hereditary monarchies that devised ways to appropriate revenue and educated the agriculturalists of ayurvedic concepts, for expanding the areas of settlement and agriculture farther Eastern Asian countries..

           Max Mueller argued on India said “ It took nearly 200 years for us to Christianize the whole of Africa, but even after 400 years, India eludes us, I have come to realize, that it is Sanskrit which has enabled India to do so. And to break it I have decided to learn Sanskrit. The soul of India lies in Sanskrit. “

Divide and Rule policy of East India Company

            They have isolated Brahmins with the intention of capturing the millions of the mass of India population with the sole intention of spreading Christianity and its moral values. To this end of gaining control over India they skillfully killed all the craftsmanship and left the poor jobless people at the mercy of missionary help and forcible conversions at a starving situation of the thousands of the population of India.

           Division of North and South was a divide and rule policy of East India company of the British Raj. The important distortion of India History is the fact that the southern India was occupied by settlers of North India.

           The British Raj has found a great Lord in Thomas Babbigton Macaulay, a Protestant Church leader, Presbyterian minister a quacker who wrote to the House of Lords in England to abolish and denigrade the entire educational system of INTELLECT INDIA, so that they Indians would think whatever British said is right and so mercilessly the British Raj at Gun Point threats, murders, squandering and loot introduced a Christian missionary teaching educational system in India.


             During the years from 1650 to 1835 British Raj in the name of East India Company has established the British Crown Imperialstic power throughout India. "Can you imagine," Bauer asks, "how American citizens would feel if the British had taken the bodies of the first several presidents back to London during the War of 1812?" This story of Liberation of America from colonial rule of Great Britain has given an immense opportunity to try its gear of tight hold administration on India the mostly submissive and spiritually thought minded people. It is an astounding thing, to notice how very calculated and meticulously executed strategies of capturing the entire nation into their inhuman grip fold. The Plassey war over Bengal in 1757AD with the convenience of Indian Soldiers was possibly the first National movement against both the Nawabs and the Western Invaders of India. It gave a lesson in simple army strategy to defeat the Indian Kings and Sultanate, Muslim and Moghul rulers in India. After the 1835 and suppression of an sepoy uprising by Indians like Manga Pandey in 1857, The British Raj has tightened its grip to completely rout out the Indian hold on the people.

               The gold and silver coin money transanctions have been totally withdrawn in 1818AD and copper coins were introduced instead to befool the Indian sentiment of Divinity of Gods etc.

Fig.12B East India God’s Coin

             Another strategy they adopted was to collect revenue through intermediaries like the Nawabs, Moghuls and the subordinate Hindu Kings as payment fees and gifts to East India Company authorities and the officials, thereby avoiding direct confrontation with the people of India. The system of collecting revenues by dubious methods was exisisting prior to the British occupancy of India, when Muslim barbaric rulers were starving the people to a point of collapse of the families. The Nawab of Hyderabad was known to have collected tax from a number of counts mostly inhuman. More than 50% of the cultivated products were being taken away without any paymnt and people were left as dry farmers. Those opposed were ruthlessly beaten with no mercy to the limit of human exhaustion. The British Raj continued this practice of inhuman administration through the conquered and subdued Nawabs, Kings, Sultanates, Muslim Rulers and even some Indian Estate Managers and Jamindars etc, since they were interested only in revenue collection but never paid attention to the barbaric acts of local “Doralu”, “Estate Managerts” and “hoodwinks” of the different local authority. The history of Telegana uprise as Andhra Maha Sabah and opposition in that country, within India country, is a very sad episode and stands as a painful history.

          The setting up of a road link round the coastal area of India from the tip of Rameswaram to Calcutta was a great wonder, marvelous than the China Wall! Freely East India Company people moved the imported Guns and also locally manufactured Guns by this military root. Especially the ammunition was very well preserved by them in secret bunkers. What happened is that the Maharaja Palaces and the Coastal forts have lost a direct access to the Seas, namely, The Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal or The Arabian Sea. The military posts on the Western India also helped the British to see that nothing moves into India nor goes out of India through the ports and all along the Rivers and innumerable number of streams linking the land to the Sea. As a result the entire trade potential, jobs and other means of living for a common has been stifled away. The people became poor and became subjects of inhuman tyranny.

              A small patch of the Road still exists in Visakhapatnam being used by Missionaries and Cricket game boys. The Beach road up to Bhimunipatnam also exists but these land marks of the British Raj Military strategy would soon disappear totally, since the New Trade of Global enterprise of the Developed Nations want several jetties to be built all along the coast with a distance of about 50kms between each. In this process several hills would soon disappear since the big boulders and rock material is necessary for the construction of Jetties to help the Foreign Trade in India.

           Gun foundries of British India which were actually centres of Ancient India metallurgy product production firms were established and totally controlled by the British Army with Gun point terror. Similarly the Coastal Railway line was built using the Steam power to run machines as the ancient Indians were using it to steam cook their rice puddings and hot breweries.

            During the British time several light houses and land marks were constructed manned mostly by Christian community people to guide the in coming ships to avoid the dangerous sand showels. Still to day one can note these light houses apparently modernized with latest technology of optical power sources and reflected beams of pointed light. In the beginning these light houses had only small light oil wigs that could be spotted from a distance of 40 to 50 kms using simple small telescopes.

Limited Funds of British Raj

                     Lord Macaulay said ”I feel with them, that it is impossible for us, with our limited means, to attempt to educate the body of the people”.
(A.)We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions we GOVERN, a class of persons, India in Blood and Color, but English in Taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of Science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degree fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population. What then shall that Language be? One-half of the committee maintained that it should be English. The other half strongly recommended Arabic and Sanskrit.
(B).The whole question seems to me to be, which language is best worth knowing? I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of “good European Library was worth the whole native literature of India. Nobody, I supoose, will counter that English is so, difficult to a Hindu as Greek to our Englishman. Less than half the time which enables an English Youth to read Hrodotus and Sophocls, ought to enable a Hindu to read Hum and Milton.
(C). We are not a Board for wasting public money, for printing books which are of less value than the paper on which they are printed was while it was blank, for giving artificial encouragement to absurd history, absurd metaphysics, absurd physics, absurd theology, for raising up a breed of scholars who find their scholarship an encumbrance and a blemish, who live on public while they are receiving their education, and whose education is so utterly, useless to them that when they have received it they must either starve or live on the public all the rest of their lives.
(D) But I would strike at the root of the bad system which has hither to been fostered by us, I would at once stop the printing of Sanskrit books. I would abolish the Sanskrit College at Calcutta. Benaras is the great seat of Brahmanical learning. If we retain the Sanskrit College at Bnaras w do enough and much more than enough in my opinion, for the Eastern languages.”

              Entire India was looted inch by inch by the then British Raj and every piece of valuable items of has been trans-shipped away from the Sacred Land of India. March 7, 1835 Governor General William Bentick with one pen stroke doomed India of its Culture and Intellectual Legacy. An ordinance that was introduced masterminded (though projected as if it had a stiff opposition in Supreme Council on India in London parliament) essentially contained the following four butcherous and evil design of suppression of India if not total annihilation of India.


1. British Government henceforth shall spend money only for the propagation of European culture and Western knowledge, by adopting the medium of communication and instruction in English.

2. All the scholarships that are being granted to propagation of local culture and languages especially Sanskrit shall be stopped henceforth.

3. No funds shall be allocated to printing and translation of Sanskrit literature and Indian knowledge.

4. Action plan to be evolved for popularizing the English language among the natives.

            The honorable member of the Supreme Council of India Lord Macaulay, it was so said had only a single opponent Mr. Prinsep (supported with the half the house of Council) who argued against him about this evil action plan for making India as a slave nation. Mr H.T.Prinsep, who was Secretary for matters pertaining ducation could not present his objection to Governer General “since it seems and that so said” Lord Macaulay carried away the Day with him because of his name and fame saw a literary figure.

           The so-called note Prinsep wrote in nhis diary seems to be quite a dubious one. Since, it maintains a slow poision approach to foster supremacy of so-dubbed European Science and its study through the English Language.

           What Mr.Prinsep wrote on 15 February 1835 is “ when the subject came under consideration in Council, there was a very hot argument between myself and Macaulay. The issue was the resolution that was published not abolisahing existing colleges, but require them to teach English as well as naïve literature and making the former obligatory, also giving some encouragement to vernacular studies, but declaring that l Government pecuniary aid in future should be given exclusively to promot the syudy of European Science through the medium of English Language. Lord Bentinck would not even allow my memorandum to be placed on record”.

              The above material of the so-called discussions in the Supreme Council on India matters is just a gimmick, a game plan and the entire episode is a self-praisal of how best and a speedy implementation of making India as a slave country, was the objective. The entire body of the Supreme Council has played the game very well and Macaulay’s ruthless imposition of English and Christian conversion with its said moral values has been most dastardly executed over the millions of Indians at just the Gun point and with the use of gun powder, “a knowledge of Gun Powder gained from India”.


                In fact the South and North India concept is a misnomer the sum totally of India was vibrant with the craftsmanship of the ancient INTELLECT INDIA and in every work of art, language, culture, and endeavor of Indians on this Jambu Dweepa is one of a harmony and life of NATURE. Every region, locality of India were equally great and contributed a lot from the days of the Brahmi script, language of rural, city and most significantly the Forest loving and dwelling people of the past. They have the establishment of Sanskrit as the ruling and administrative language of India. These emergent kingdoms all over India collected revenue through officials, maintained armies, and built new cities and highways. By 600 B.C, sixteen such territorial powers, including the Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara, stretched across the North India plains, from modern-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh. The right of a king to his throne, no matter how it was gained, was usually legitimized through elaborate sacrifice rituals and genealogies, forced priests who ascribed to the king divine or superhuman origins. Similar rituals of Egyptian brutal culture seem to have gained origin in India through some kind of barbaism.

             As riverine and inland trade flourished, many towns along the Ganga, Godavari, Brahmaputra, Krishna, Kaveri and Tungabhadra etc, became centers of trade, culture, and luxurious living. Increasing population and surplus production provided the bases for the emergence of independent states with fluid territorial boundaries over which disputes frequently arose. The political map of ancient and medieval India was made up of myriad kingdoms with fluctuating boundaries. In the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., northern India was unified under the Gupta Dynasty. During this period, known as India's Golden Age, Hindu culture and political administration reached new heights.

Sukthas, Samhitas and Modern Science and  Technology

               Sage Kashyapa wrote “Krushi Suktha” and Amarkosa describes about 12 varieties of Soils. Rig Veda mentions the Water Cycle of atmosphere in which water evaporates due to sunlight the so formed vapors become clouds and reach the Earth in the form of rain. Artha Sastra of Kautilya maintained records of mean rain falls over the ages. Varahamihir in Bhrthat Samhita of 600 AD wrote about instruments of rain fall records, especially the vessel “Adika” of 20” diameter and 8” depth for gathering the measurement of rainfall. Four adikas is regarded as one “Droni.” He said rain with thunder and clouds cover about 400 sq.miles. While heavy winds scatter away the rain falls over a lesser area of spread.

           The modern scientist has his own theory and art (technique) for producing the rain. The old seer scientist had his both also, but different from these now availing. He had his Science and Technology, called Yajna, in which Mantra, Yantra, and other factors must co-operate with mathematical determinateness and precision. For this purpose, he had developed the six auxiliaries of the Vedas in each of which mathematical skill and adroitness, occult or otherwise, play the decisive role. The Sutras lay down the shortest and surest lines. The correct pronunciation of the Mantra, the correct configuration of the Yantra (in the making of the Vedi etc., e.g. the quadrate of a circle), the correct time or astral conjunction factor, and the correct rhythms’ etc. All had to be perfected so as to produce the desired results effectively and adequately. Each of these required the Calculus of Mathematics. The modern technician has his logarithmic tables and mechanic’s manuals. The old Yajnik had his Sutras.

            The forest and agency dwelling people of India's Northeast (cannot be snubbed as TRIBES) is far superior to anything they could teach them. A good example is the use of alder (Alnus nepalensis), which has been cultivated in the jhum (shifting cultivation) fields by the Khonoma farmers in Nagaland for centuries. It has multiple usages for the farmers, since it is a nitrogen-fixing tree and helps to retain the soil fertility. Its leaves are used as fodder and fertilizer, and it is also utilized as timber.

           Colin Scott writes: "With the upsurge of multidisciplinary interest in 'traditional ecological knowledge', models explicitly held by indigenous people in areas as diverse as forestry, fisheries, and physical geography are being paid increasing attention by Western Scientists, who have in some cases established extremely productive long-term dialogues with local experts. The idea that local experts are often better informed than their Western Peers is at last receiving significant acknowledgment beyond the boundaries of anthropology."

           The herbal farmer as native informant to the Western pharmaceutical firm appropriating medicines for patents even to-date is still continuing as a process of easy assimilation of Ayurvedic Medicine and treatment. It is known that th Infra Red Spectra of many medicinal plants from a chemistry tacher from India has been purchased by a Scientist abroad for a sum of just $25 each sample with providing all details. Given their poverty in modern times, these 'native informants' dish out whatever the Western scholar expects to hear in order to fit his/her thesis and/or patent rights possession, because in return they receive pretty rewards. Vasco De Gamma gave doll gifts etc to native Africans in South Africa in return for Gold and Silver ornaments and wrote to the Queen of England that these Africans would be a good commodity as human slaves.

            Surapala in “vriksha Ayurveda” of 10th century AD said three types of are of essential utility for farmers. Parasara in his book “krishi Parasara” gave methods of producing seeds and how to preserve them. Kautilyas Artha Sastra gives methods of purifying seeds with cow dung, milk, fish and bones etc. Dams and reservoirs were known to INTELLECT INDIA and as early as 400BC. Sudarshana dam in the state of Gujarat and Kallnni Dam in the state of Tamil Nadu are mentioned to be the best examples of INTELLECT INDIA constructions. Chakrapani in “viswa vallabha” gave methods of locating the underground water sources. Varahamihir has elaborated on the underground water sources from the trees grown, herbs that survive and the anthills of region.

              Neem tooth brush and toilet soaps, from the neem oil and neem seeds are known to the Indians from the Vedic times. A vaginal application of neem oil prevents pregnancy. Indian monks were using the neem oil medicine to get rid of the carnel passions. Mosquito repellant use neem oil lamps in India. The neem increases fertility of farm land manifold. 1995 European patent in Munich to AAI & W R Grace has been challenged and repelled it 2000, by Vanadana Shiva an eminent crusader of India to protect its Ayurveda rights and knowledge. 20Grace tried but it was rejected since too many people in India know about Ayurveda Plants, Medicines and their manufacture, treatment and most significantly their utility.

           Turmeric combined with lime is a Vedic times Yogic spot i.e. kept on the forehead as a red blob. For woman it is strength of husband’s welfare in divine terms of a SACRED MARRIAGE with him. Combined with milk it is used as a medicine for cough, cold. It clears the phlem in lungs. The Ayurveda has about 1, 50,000 herbs and only a digital record preservation would help India to protect its patent rights. The attempt by western countries of the patent rights of Ayurveda products is Foul, Funny, Vicious, Scornful, Brutal and Deceitful.

             Islam spread across the Indian subcontinent over a period of 500 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established sultanates in Delhi. In the early 16th century, descendants of Genghis Khan swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Dynasty, which lasted for 200 years. From the 11th to the 15th centuries, southern India was dominated by Hindu Chola and Vijayanagar Dynasties. The Muslims were very firm and converted many Hindus to Islam and those who have not agreed were subjected to utter human disgrace and were put to painful and cynical death.

British outpost in South Asia

                      The first British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast. Later in the century, the East India Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, each under the protection of native rulers.

The Battle of Plassey 1757 and the Patriotic 2500 Bengali Soldiers:

                   It began with the accession of Siraj-ud-Dowlah as Nawab of Bengal in the year 1756. Battle that followed on from Bengal had a long standing treaty with the East India Company, who held Calcutta, but the new Nawab ignored the treaty, and occupied Calcutta, after which he threw the captured servants of the Company into the infamous black hole of Calcutta. The East India Company responded with an army led by Robert Clive, which recaptured Calcutta, took Chandernagore off the French, and then caught up with the Nawab's army at the village of Plassey. The Battle of Plassey was a battle only in name. Being aware that the French-supported Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula was intent on further rebellion against East India Company rule, Robert Clive led a force of about 800 European and 2,500 Indian soldiers to confront him. He found Siraj at Plassey, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, at the head of 50,000 men. Thus on June 23rd, 1757 at Plassey, a small village and mango grove between Calcutta and Murshidabad, the forces of the East India Company under Robert Clive met the army of Siraj-ud-Doula, the Nawab of Bengal.

                    The major part of the Nawab's army led by the traitors Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh, but took no part in the fighting. Those who betrayed Siraj-ud-Daula are 1. Jagat Seth, a rich Banker 2. Khadim Khan a powerful Noble 3.Manik Chand, officer in charge of Calcutta 4.Mir Jaffar Commander-in-Chief 5.Amin Chand, a famous merchant of Calcutta 6. Rai Durlabh, a treasurer of Nawab 7. Qhasiti Begum, his matinal aunt.

                   During the battle a monsoon storm, lasting nearly an hour, drenched both sides and the ground. The Nawab guns slackened their fire because their powder was insufficiently protected, but when the Nawab cavalry charged in the hope that the British guns had suffered similarly they were sharply repulsed by heavy fire. The rainstorm soaked Siraj's artillery powder and Clive, who had kept his powder dry, opened a devastating fire when the nawab's cavalry tried to charge.

                 Siraj fled, leaving a still nervous Mir Jafar to occupy the palace and treasury, and to await Clive's coming before ascending the masnad or throne. The act ended with the capture of Siraj-ud-doula when nearing Bihar and was brutally murdered by Mir Jafar's son Miran. The British were able to overwhelm the French artillery. Clive had won a famous victory against overwhelming odds, for the loss of between 20 and 70 men, an outstanding achievement that gained effective control over Bengal for the British, and drove the French out of northern India.

               Although there was little or no British government involvement in India at this time, the victory of the East India Company destroyed French trade in India, which helped Britain in the Seven Years War. The Seven Years War was the first global conflict. It had two main fronts. India British success continued in 1760, with victory over the French in India at the Battle of Wandiwash (Madras, 22 January), which ended French hopes of a victory in India. The British were successful at Pondicherry in January 1762.

                The two important facts are generally overlooked by the Historians of India, that the powerful army of dedicated 2500, Bengali soldiers, helped the British East India Company to win the war over Siraj Dowlah as Nawab at Plassey, and the fact that the French were totally routed from the Trade in India. The names of these 2500 Bengalis and their skillful help, to maintaing the dry Gun powder, to the East India Company went in vain for their own benefit but the patriotic Bengalis have removed at least the two evil invaders of India. Here is thus the realization by the people in India, the Bengalis, to thwart the Invaders namely the Nawabs and the French.

                The seeds of first Independence movement were thus laid on 23rd June 1757. The episodes of fight with the East India Company by other Indian Rulers from Delhi and other parts of India reflecting true patriotism of the Indian people have not been recorded with genuine intention and reproduced by the Historians.

                Another aspect of the British East India Company was to convert all the places of Metal Smiths and convert them as Gun Factory Foundries. The original Indian foundries of Ancient India provided just the right environment of age old people’s professionalism, and the astounding facility, of creating their own British Gun manufacturing foundries and centers of military excellence. They did so ironically with the forced labor of ancient India origin.

              The English proclaimed Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal on June 23rd, 1757 and set out to gather the reward. The ransom demands payments from the East India Company officials for Presents and Bribes soon emptied the treasury wealth of the Nawab Mir Jafar. When Mir Jafar hesitated to fulfill their all expectations they, forced him in October 1760 to leave the throne in favor of his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, who rewarded his benefactors by granting the Company the Zamindari of districts of Burdwan, Midnapur and Chittagong and giving handsome presents, totaling 29 Lakh of rupees to the high English officials. But the Bengali soldierts who fought the decisive battle have not been rewarded and many of them might have been killed by the British Soldiers themselves since the war was won by them under Lord Clive.

              The battle lasted no more than a few hours, and indeed the outcome of the battle had been decided long before the soldiers came to the battlefield. The aspirant to the Nawab's throne, Mir Jafar, was induced to throw in his lot with Clive, and by far the greater number of the Nawab's soldiers were bribed to throw away their weapons, surrender prematurely, and even turn their arms against their own army, just as the British army did on the 2500 strong Bengali soldiers who helped them to win the war.

              Plassey was decisive for the British in India, and for Clive. Jawaharlal Nehru, in The Discovery of India (1946), justly describes Clive as having won the battle "by promoting treason and forgery", and pointedly notes that British rule in India had "an unsavory beginning and something of that bitter taste has clung to it ever since."

Strategic planning of Building British Residency Governance

               The foundation of the famous Residential complex called residency was laid by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula of Avadh in 1775 after the court moved from Faizabad to Lucknow with a view to accommodate the British visitors. During the rule of Nawab Saadat Ali Khan (1798-1814), the construction of the main residency building was completed. With growing need, in course of time a number of buildings were added to this complex and thus achieved the shape of an exclusive European settlement. Nawab Saadat Ali Khan also arranged for a special guard of honour of Colonel Baillie in the south-eastern part of the Residency, with this the portal came to be known as Baillie Guard Gate.

                A significant strategy of British and their subordinate Moghul or Muslim kings like Nawab Asaf-ud-daula of Avadh was to build new structures to accommodate the necessary governing administrative buildings by using the destroyed ancient forts of India. The material was “ready made” for the construction of the huge mansions of the both the British and the Moghuls, Nawabs and the greedy Indian Maharajas. This was also evident from the use of Bricks of Mahan-ja-dfaro and Taxila forts and civilizations to build their railway system. Prototype buildings through out India under British Raj can be easily identified by the prototype building material used by the ancient Kings to build their forts. In spite the fact that Krishna Devaraya ordered the total destruction of the Indus Valley famous fort in Visakhapatnam, still the remaining material of the walls and some indestructible monuments material of fine-cut stone material was used by the Britishers to construct Collectorate, Municipal Building, Town Hall, innumerable number of big Churches, many right in the sacred localities of Visakhapatnam, and in many other several towns in India stand as a proof of the strategic planning of Building British Residency Governance.

The indigenous handicrafts


                The indigenous handicrafts that in other parts of the country are confined to professional castes were practiced as household industries in the valley of the Brahmaputra. In Assam proper, there is no dearth of raw materials. Indigenous manufacturers consisted of thread and fabrics, cotton textiles, brass utensils, oil extracted from mustard or til seeds gur or molasses, jewelleries, articles of ivory and agricultural implements. Every family in Assam proper had looms to meet the requirement of the household. The looms were in fact the center of domestic economy, the only hope of salvation in an hour of distress or despair. Cotton manufactures- churias, chaddars, barkapors, khania kapor and gamochas- were entirely in the hands of women of all classes, although women of respectability and position usually prepared only the finest fabrics, asu or asuli poreah, gunnah, kotah, gai bonkara- resembling the muslins of Dacca.

           Weaving was done with handlooms. There were of the plainest kind and none of the latest improvements had been introduced. The different local varieties of spinning and weaving had been used in different parts of the province and posted loom used in the plains were different from the hill tribes in which the warp was tied up in split bamboo to the ends of which were fastened a leather strap which passed across the weavers. Comparatively the Assamese looms were in an advanced stage and suitable for the production of finer quality of fabrics of all kinds.

            All manufactures were of course meant for the domestic consumption. In the absence of competition, largely quality produced was poor and export of cotton textiles was negligible. Varieties and artistic ornaments distinguished Cotton fabrics turned out by the Assamese and some of the tribesmen. Amongst the Assamese fabrics, ornamentation were either knitted on the fabrics after the weaving or worked along with the weaving. Embroidery was done chiefly in muga silk or gold and silver wire (guna) by artisans called Gunaakatas but these workmen gradually disappeared with the arrival of gold and silver wires from Europe.

           The Assamese women knew the use of needle for ornamentation of various design and patterns from early times. They were also adept in the art of mixed raw materials, cotton mixed with silk. Endi or eri was woven with cotton. Rarely cotton was combined with pat silk, but often with muga; churi and riha of such materials were usually manufactured.

           Handloom weaving forms a cultural constituent of the woman of Assam. In earlier days most of the cloth required for the family was produced in the family itself. Now the scenes have changed totally in urban areas. Mill products are gradually replacing the homemade products.

           Homemade cloths are Mekhla and Patani (lower garment of the women), chaddar (upper garment of the women), gamocha (towel), dhuti, bed sheet, eri (endi), etc. some of them have fly shuttle or throw shuttle and Assamese type loom. Throw shuttle loom antedates the fly shuttle loom. Villagers do generally not do spinning. They get mill-products yarn from the market. A few of them keep eri (endi) cocoons to produce eri (endi) cloth. The designs of the textiles are tradition of the Assamese culture and they are initiated at the base level by the Sipini (weaver women) of Assam.

            Assamese women use riha-mekhela-Sadar. The long flowing skirt up to the ankles is known as mekhela and the upper garment riha. The red coloured pattern at the end of the riha is graceful and symbolic. Designs are also found in the pari (border) of mekhela and riha. It is said that the dress of mehkela and the riha chaddar has been adopted from the Tibetan and Burmese women. Some are of the opinion that the long back saree was the dress of the Assamese women. The brides of lower Assam use saree in the marriage ceremony. However, some Assamese ladies have started using saree at home and outside, as it is cheaper than mekhela chaddar. Ladies of Goalpara, Gouripur, and Dhubri area prefer sari for both outside and for home. The Bodo ladies of Kokrajhar, Darrang, Sonitpur etc. use Dakhna which is different from Mehkela-riha-Sador. Generally, dakhna has yellow colour body with some design in brown colour etc. ladies do not use headgear. Married women cover their head with one end of the riha-sador and it is called orni or ghumta. The Hindu married ladies put vermilion on their forehead and on the parting of combed hair and wear bangles made of shell.

          Women wear mekhela covering waist and ankle. Riha cover the upper part. They wear sador to cover the upper part and use blouse and bodice. Assamese Muslims also use same dresses except vermilion. Assam possessed varieties of dyeing materials yet dyeing was not common. No record is in existence of an export trade, except munjit, either of crude dies or of manufactured dyed articles nor of indigenous dyeing caste in both the valleys.

          The recent visit of an American Consulate member to Assam going through the native Silk Industry is reported in Hindu New Paper. Sualkuchi Silk village about 30km away from Guwahat has an eye catching designs and splendor of them everyone would admire if not able to adore. Mugas silk(Assam ) sericulture activity and out of about 28lakh looms in the country this Assam state alone has 13 lakh of them. 2.8lakh are invoved busy in commercial production, 5.7 lakh looms are commercial but are semi-automatic, while the other looms are producing a variety of designs for domestic use.


                    Brahamanpalli (Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh) has set an example of organic manure energetic feed production in 1190 acres of land using cow dung and the village timbaktu collective with 60 odd families engaged in the work. The village smells of the manure and the cow dung very much but people say that their children are not falling often sick due to the unknown viral influenzas of the modern world. In fact only 3 acres of land enough for the energetic manure production for about 1050 acres of irrigation land.

Forcibly whisked away from Bharat

                        The ancient treatises available in India to-day are very few, since most of them have been forcibly whisked away from Bharat and perhaps authors or people possessing them were murdered brutally during the suppressive measures taken by the invaders of the country from foreign lands. Marco pole said Indian ships were able to carry as many as 200 people.

                   About Indian ports G. Kuppuman in “India through the ages” book on pages 521-529 gave details of the skills of artisans in India. King Marthanda Varma of Travancore in 1742 defeated the Dutch Naval Cavalry and held the leader for nearly 25years as a subordinate. But by 1814 the British got the control of ports and dictated that no Indian ship can berth in England or enter the ports. By 1863 the Indian ship builders were made jobless and the artisans were totally rooted out. “Le--hindus" book by Francoin Balazar Solvyans a French man in 1811 AD wrote that British have learnt the ship building from the Indians. The word Navigation in English is borrowed from Sanskrit word NAVAGATI. Ship building was known to Indians since 5000years ago before the Christ. King Bhoja in Yuthkalpatharu mentioned two types one Soumya the other as Vishesha. Both are built by using teak wood. Even in 1781 AD to 1821AD Hugly harbor built 275 ships that carried a load of 122 lakh tonnes of materials. In 1736AD to 1863AD Mumbai built 300 ships for the trade dominated by English people.

                 In fact in 1863AD Sir Williams Deigo said with the law in force British Queen had eliminated the Naval Queen of India.

                 In Chowpathy beach in presence of His Highness Maharaj of Baroda, Sri Sayaji Rao Gaikwad and Judge Mahander Govind Ranade and in presence of a number of onlooker Bombites an aircraft designed by the Engineer Siva Kumar Bapuji Talapade as per the Bhardwaja Vaimanika Sastra has been flown to a height of 15ooft above the ground on the beach shore. Immediately the British Raj confiscated all the documents, machinery, designs and the entire material of the Vaimanika Sastra from the organizers and strictly warned the Maharaja of Baroda not to undertake any such attempts in future.[refer Deccan Herald Tuesday December 16th, 2003]. Also refer Subharaya Sarma of Mysore given the knowledge details of vaimanika sastra and an English translation published by R S Jyoser in English.

              The Sashtra contains 8 chapters with 100 Adikaranas (sub chapters) 500 sutras (aphrisus) 300 slokas and 32 aeronautic secrets. There are about 25 existing texts on Vimana Sashtra of Vedic times. In the year 1923 many drawings are made of the designs of the Vimanas used by the ancient INTELLECT INDIA.

Fig.14B a, b, c There are about 25 existing texts on the Vimanas used by the ancient India.

             The Taittiriya Brahmana, which was composed probably as early as 700 B. C. (if not even earlier) speaks of Brahmacharya in the sense of studying the Vedas with due self-control. We find there the story of Bharadvaja who practised Brahmacharya for one whole life which was as long as three lives. Indra approached him and, finding him decayed and old, said, "Bharadvaja, if I were to give you a fourth life, what would you do with it?" He answered, "I would use it in practising Brahmacharya."

Sakti Sutras

           Sakti Sutras of Agasthya and Saudhamini Kala by Eswara have also details of this Vaimanika knowledge of Indians. Some designs are presented in the Figures. 14B a,b,c.

           Samarangasutradhara by King Bhoja has been translated into English by William Chlorundon. It describes 31 types of engines for warfare aeronautics. A self-propelling engine for inter stellar travel is described. Special alloys that make the machines invisible for the enemy are given. They called it Tamogarbha.Yajur veda in verse 9-8 specify the machines that run on jet speed. Rig-Veda 1-37-1 specifies a machine for a sports vehicle. Mass transport is specified in Atherveda verse 20-76-2 of a public transport similar to a bus or train.

                            “trisokah rathah kutsenasatah nrrnavahat”

In Rig-Veda 6-62-6 specifies vimana as means of air transport.

                 Rakashas called “Tripurasuras” aerial cities that were flown in air and as well travel in water and on Earth and kept many people captive in them. In Dwapara Yuga it seems there were about 25 varieties of aeronautical machines. In Satya and Tretha Yuga Mantrik vimanas of 25 types were present of both physical and mystical aspects associated with them. Ramayana describes Puspak Vimanam captured from Ravana who possessed it from Kubera. It is in fact an aerial city. In Bhagvatham Shishupala’s friend Sdva on Krishna’s Dwaraka sent a Viman called the Soubha (made of iron) which can appear and as well disappear as per the Pilots (Saubhikas) wish. Kapila’s parents Sage Kapartha and Devahuthi were able to make interstellar travel in Vimanas. The Chinese who captured the texts of Buddhists [“laghima”] in Tibet gave it to Prof Rutherana of Chandhigar University to decipher them. Sage Saunaka gave five categories of Vimanas. Notable among them are the use of Vanaspathi oil driven viman, Mercury vortex gas engine, Solar Energy and Power from air driven engines. [Pannaka Mahamuni].

1. Vayu tatwan Prakaram Sakataayana

2. Vysanala Tantra

3. Dhnma Prakaranm- by Narada

4. Viman Chandrika Narayana Maharashi

5. Yantra Kalpa of Gargas

6. Yanabindu Vachaspathiu etc books are available.

           The ancient Hindus could navigate the air, and not only navigate it, but fight battles in it like so many war-eagles combating for the domination of the clouds.

           The various advantages of using machines, especially flying ones, are given elaborately. Special mention is made of their use at one’s will and pleasure, of their uninterrupted movements, of their strength and durability, in short of their capability to do in the air all that is done on earth. Three movements are usually ascribed to these machines, - ascending, cruising thousands of miles in different directions in the atmosphere and lastly descending.

            It is said that in an aerial car one can mount up to Suryamandala, ‘solar region’ and the Naksatra mandala (stellar region) and also travel throughout the regions of air above the sea and the earth. These cars are said to move so fast as to make a noise that could be heard faintly from the ground. The evidence in its favor is overwhelming.

           An aerial car is made of light, wood looking like a great bird with a durable and well-formed body having mercury inside and fire at the bottom. It had two resplendent wings, and is propelled by air. It flies in the atmospheric regions for a great distance and carries several persons along with it. The inside construction resembles heaven created by Brahma himself.

          Iron, copper, lead and other metals are also used for these machines. All these show how far art and science was developed in ancient India in this direction. Such elaborate description ought to meet the criticism that the vimanas and similar aerial vehicles mentioned in ancient Indian literature should be relegated to the region of myth.

           The ancient writers could certainly make a distinction between the mythical which they designated as daiva and the actual aerial wars designated as manusa. After the great victory of Rama over Lanka, Vibhisana presented him with the Puspaka vimana which was furnished with windows, apartments, and excellent seats.

Fig.15B Rama, Sita and Lakshman and others

It was capable of accommodating all the vanaras besides Rama, Sita and Lakshman.

             Again in the Vikramaurvaisya, we are told that king Puraravas rode in an aerial car to rescue Urvasi in pursuit of the Danava who was carrying her away. Similarly in the Uttararamacarita in the flight between Lava and Candraketu (Act VI) a number of aerial cars are mentioned as bearing celestial spectators. There is a statement in the Harsacarita of Yavanas being acquainted with aerial machines. The Tamil work Jivakacintamani refers to Jivaka flying through the air. Kathasaritsagara refers to highly talented woodworkers called Rajyadhara and Pranadhara. The former was so skilled in mechanical contrivances that he could make ocean crossing chariots. And the latter manufactured a flying chariot to carry a thousand passengers in the air. These chariots were stated to be as fast as thought itself.

(source: India Through The Ages: History, Art Culture and Religion, By G. Kuppuram p. 532-533).

Fig.16B many Vedic Texts destroyed by Foreign Invaders.

           The Rig-Veda, the oldest document of the human race includes references to the following modes of transportation: Jalayan a vehicle designed to operate in air and water (Rig Veda 6.58.3).

Kaara- Kaara- Kaara- a vehicle that operates on ground and in water.

(Rig Veda 9.14.1)

Tritala- Tritala- Tritala- a vehicle consisting of three stories.

(Rig Veda 3.14.1);

Trichakra Ratha, Trichakra Ratha, Trichakra Ratha,
a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in the air.

(Rig Veda 4.36.1)

Vaayu Ratha, a gas or wind-powered chariot. 

(Rig Veda 5.41.6)

Vidyut Ratha a vehicle that operates on electromagnetic power.

(Rig Veda 3.14.1).

              The "Agastya Samhita" gives us Agastya's descriptions of two types of aeroplanes. The first is a "chchatra" (umbrella or balloon) to be filled with hydrogen. The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated. This was stated to be a primitive type of plane, useful only for escaping from a fort when the enemy had set fire to the jungle all around. Hence the name "Agniyana". The second type of aircraft mentioned is somewhat on the lines of the parachute. It could be opened and shut by operating chords. This aircraft has been described as "vimanadvigunam" i.e. of a lower order than the regular aeroplane. Bhardwaja's "Vaimanika Shastra" not only gives information on his methods of aeroplane construction but also provides a bibliography. He had consulted six treatises by six different authors previous to him. After him too there have been four commentaries on his work. Planes which will not break (abhedya), or catch fire (adaahya) and which cannot be cut (achchedya) have also been described. Along with the treatise there are diagrams of three types of aeroplanes , "Sundara", "Shukana" and "Rukma". It appears that aerial warfare was also not unknown, for the treatise gives the technique of "shatru vimana kampana kriya" and "shatru vimana nashana kriya" i.e. shaking and destroying enemy aircraft, as well as photographing enemy planes, rendering their occupants unconscious and making one's own plane invisible.

         The Arthasastra of Kautilya (c. 3rd century B.C.) mentions amongst various tradesmen and technocrats the Saubhikas as 'pilots conducting vehicles in the sky'. Saubha was the name of the aerial flying city of King Harishchandra and the form 'Saubika' means 'one who flies or knows the art of flying an aerial city'. Kautilya uses another significant word 'Akasa Yodhinah', which has been translated as 'persons who are trained to fight from the sky.' The existence of aerial chariots, in whatever form it might be, was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of the Emperor Asoka which were executed during his reign from 256 B.C. - 237 B. C. Only a few years ago, the Chinese discovered some Sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet and sent them to the University of Chandrigarh to be translated. Dr. Ruth Reyna of the university said that the documents contain directions for building interstellar spaceships! The Chinese announced that they were including certain parts of the documents for study in their space program

Temples in East India

                 Because of their separate regional development, some parts of an East Indian temple have a different terminology than what is used elsewhere in India. For example, the part of the temple that contains the shrine is called a deul in Orissa, but a vimana everywhere else.

                East Indian temples combine a northern-style tower, or rekha deul in the Orissan terminology, with a southern-style hall: Other parts of the Orissan temple in elevation, starting from the bottom, include: (1) the pista, or platform; (2) the bada, or wall, divided into one or more horizontal sections; (3) the gandi ("trunk") is the tower or spire of the deul; and (4-5) capping elements of amalaka and kalasha, already familiar from northern-style temples. The tower is divided into horizontal courses called bhumi, separated by amalas ("cushion;" the same element also appears on the amalaka, and can also be used as the capital of a column, as at Ellora and Elephanta.)

                 Temples in East India often, although not always, open to the west. In the larger and later temples, such as Ananta Vasudeva (1278) whose plan is sketched above, there are four structures: the deul which contains the shrine; the jagamohan which is the entry hall to the deul; a natamandir or dance pavilion; and an initial bhogamandapa or offering hall. The latter two buildings are sometimes separate from, and sometimes joined to, the deul/jagamohan complex. The deul is usually of the rekha (curved, Deccan-style outline) type, as mentioned earlier. Squarish projections from the base of the deul, called rathas, approximate a circular shape in plan. Three projections on a side make a triratha, five projections make a pancaratha, and so on.

               An important aspect of Vedic times which, is not much emphasized but taken for granted as a known fact, is that the Mandapams in and around the main temples throughout India and elsewhere of the Indian Temples Planned and built by the Vedic scholars, were actually the places of imparting the knowledge of practice of all the 64 craftsmanships, by the surrounding villagers and farmers etc. including the professional youngsters. Also they were the places that where the day-to-day problems were discussed and questions and answers were provided by the Priests, Learned Gurus, and the Great Rishis visiting the temples. This kind of a dialogue between the teacher and the taught is an unique system evolved by INTELLECT INDIA and had no parallel in any of the contemporary existing or projected civilizations of the world.

Vimanam: Thiru Anbil–Sri Vadivazhagiya Nambi Perumal Temple:

Dhaaraga Vimanam.

               Lots of sculptures found here. Mandooga Pushkarani – Kollidam. The pond here is also called as "Manduga Theertham".

Vimanam: Vimalaakkruthi Vimaanam. Thiru Vellarai: Sri Pundarikaashan Perumal Temple.

                  The big festival takes place on the third day of Panguni (March-April) every year when the Lord and Goddess are taken on a procession to the Coloroon river.One can see the Srirangam temple from here, though it is 15 kms away. In front of big pillar in his temple, when we make any sound, it replicates and echo around the temple. Because of this, some of paasurams in Divyapprabhandhams are said for 2 or 3 times. Situated on top of a Mountain at 100 feet highet and is full of white rocks. Vellarai means white rock. Located about 20 kms North of Trichy, on the way to Thuraiyur, Thiruvellari temple is housed on a 14 acre property. Inscriptions and the architecture at this temple point, to the fact that Pallava, Hoysala and Vijayanagara kings have contributed significantly to this temple.

Vimanam: Utthiyoga Vimaanam.

            Thirukkarambanur: Sri Purushotaman Perumal Temple. Nagalinga Poo (flower), which is one of the famous and rare flower is found here and this is the special flower here to do poojas in this temple. Kadhambam means mixture of things. Both Shiva and Vishnu are found in the same temple. It is situated in Trichy, Tamil Nadu district. 8 Kms away from Trichy, 3 1/2 Kms from Sri Rangam, situated in the middle of Trichy - Sri Rangam small Railway station along the Railway from Trichy to Vizhupuram Guard line.

Vimanam: The Vimaanam is Kalyana Vimaanam.

Thirukkozhi or Uraiyur Temple.

                  The Position of the Thaayar is similar to position of a Bride who sits along with the Groom during marriage. The above positions are called as “Thirukalyana Avasaram”. She is found in Sitting position (Veetrirundha Kolam) facing North direction. He is found in Standing position (Nindra thirukkolam), facing his thirumugham towards North direction along with “Prayoga Chakkaram”. Prakthyaksham for Ravidharman and all Devars(330 crores). A speciality of this temple is that this is the only Divya Desam (out of the 108) where the Goddess is facing the Northern direction, in this case in the direction of the Srirangam Ranganatha temple. On the first day of Panguni Uthiram, Sri Ranganathar comes from Sri Rangam and stay in Urayoor. And on Panguni Uthiram, he marries Kamalavalli Naachiyar. Brighu muni went to Kailasam where Lord Shivan and Godess Parvathi reside. But, in the entrance itself, Brighu muni was stopped by the Dwara Balakaas. he then left to Sathya Lokam where Lord Brahma and Godess Saraswathi reside. There also he could not meet Brahma devan. Finally, he went to Sri Vaikuntam where Sriman Narayanan and Godess Sri Laksmi reside.

                Brahma started the penance. Like this a thousand years elapsed, and at the end, Lord Vishnu appeared in a Ranga Vimanam from the Milky Ocean. Ranga Vimanam is the name given to a special chariot-like conveyance carried by Veda Murtis on their head, having Lord Vishnu inside the Vimanam (vehicle). Nagaraja was holding the white umbrella in attendance. Senapati Vishwaksena was holding a cane and chamaram (fan). Narada with Tumburu, uttering the hymns in praise, along with Devas, Angels, Kinnarasi (heavenly beings) were in prayerful attention. Sages Sanat kumara and others, the usual mythological attendants of Vishnu, were following the chariot. In deep veneration Brahma went round the chariot four times chanting the four Vedas with his four mouths and stood before Lord Vishnu in prayerful pose representatives of all the worlds of the Universe, including Durga, Saraswati, Sapta Rishis, Navagrahas, constellations of stars and the Ashta Palakas (eight doorkeepers) and others were also in attendance. for the first time the real Swarupam of Vishnu in Ranga Vimanam with his attendants was shown to him as desired. Since that day the Ranga Vimanam became most famous, as the real seat of the Universal God. Brahma wanted to worship Lord Vishnu in the Vimanam forever. Lord Vishnu agreed to his request and Brahma took him to his abode in Satyaloka. News spread in course of time to Manu, the son of Sun God Surya, who was attracted and desired to have the darshan, for which he performed a penance and fulfilled his desire by a visit to Satyaloka and, paying homage’s to the Ranga Vimanam, then in the custody of Brahma, he attained liberation. Manu's son Ikshwaku cherished the desire of possessing the Ranga Vimanam for the benefit of the people on earth. He consulted his family preceptor, Vasishtha (priest of the Surya vamsha), who advised him to start penance uttering the sacred Ashtakshara Mantra. Accordingly, Ikshwaku started a severe penance which puzzled even the devas, foreboding evil days for them. They attempted to spoil the penance by deputing Maninatha and the celestial nymphs to distract his attention. Indra took the lead in this affair and did not even hesitate to send the Vajraayudha (lightning weapon) to foil the penance. But all failed in their attempts. In disappointment, they prayed to Brahma, to save them from the baffling catastrophe. Brahma on his part approached Ranganatha for advice. Ranganatha consoled Brahma by expressing his desire to go to Ayodhya where he would be worshipped by the descendant of the Solar dynasty for four Yugas, and at the end of the fourth Yuga he would go to the kingdom of the Cholas in the South, on the banks of the Kaveri, where he would stay for 700 years. At the end, of this period he would return to Brahmaloka. Brahma was directed to part with the Ranga Vimanam to Ikshwaku. From Ikshwaku to Lord Rama time, this Vimaan was worshipped and belonged to Ayodhya Kings.

                 Once upon time, Manipur was surrounded by seven hillocks and water every where. Seven suns burned day and night. Atiya Kuru Shidaba and Ima Leimaran decided to create a world thus descended from heaven. Atiya Kuru Shidaba drained out water through a hole with a trident. Once settled, they had a child to fulfill their wishes. A voice from the heaven announced- Dig out some clay and make a pitcher out of it and offer prayers for seven days then your wish will be fulfilled. After seven days of prayer, a male child of golden colour was found by the couple. The child was christened Sanamahi, he later shot down six extra suns by his arrows and created various creatures dwelling on water, air and earth. Finally he created human being. Atiya Kuru Shidaba and Ima Leimaran Shidabi disappeared after completing their task. Ima Leimaran took several incarnations to carry out seven different tasks.`Panthoibi or Leima Leinaotabi, was among them, who created the first earthen-pot. Therefore, in the creation myth of Manipur, the earthen pot becomes the metaphor for the womb.

               Manipur is a state embedded in deepest tradition of art and craft going back to a hoary antiquity. The tradition was further refined in the performing and marshal arts so intimately that day to day life of the people was marked by an aesthetic consciousness even in the domain of crafts. Pottery in Manipur is closely related with social, cultural and religious life. The art of pottery making in Manipur is practised by women without using wheel in a similar fashion as in the other northeastern states.

The Hindu Marriage

                 Traditional Hindu marriage system is fast disappearing in India. This is a consequence of the dirty Cinemas who have made the tradition as a mockery of the elaborate procedures. The sanctity of marriage ties has been made, as a diluted emotional love affair outside the parental and traditional care of the elders in the house. Once the decision to get married is made by the two-sides elders, then would be couple, friends and close relatives write an invitation format on a 6” width and 12” length copper sheet wishing, wishing that would be couple to enjoy a healthy, long life, wealthy and prosperity of a home bright with blessed children. The use of a palm leaves woven umbrella and a pot (known as commandalamu) by the groom that he intends to renounce worldly life and go to Kasi or Himalayas, is enacted with the father-in-law requesting the groom to settle for his daughter’s hand and a married tie with her to lead a splendid life. At that time he wears wooden-made sandals, like a rushi. He holds a walking stick. Usually it is made of modugu wood for a brhamachari, in married life it is made up of Ankola (edugu) wood and in a sanyasi life it is made of Bamboo wood. The thorny stems called the sannikalu were used for the couple to walk on it to remind of the hardships in a married life. The fire place of worship called the homagundem (fire place of Yagna) as per a geometric design is being replaced now-a-days by a simple hotpot vessels. The sacred rice mixed with turmeric, is being replaced by glittering plastic and other shinning flakes of paper, for digital photography recording. Rice implies the concentration of mind on married life. With all these modifications still traditional marriage style is somehow being followed by Indians that is really remarkable.

              The finely carved sculptures, the remnants of the damaged temples in India, survived palm-leaf written material, mouth-to-mouth recitations of the ancient traditional features, rituals, practices, most significantly the in-built way of Indian peoples living, family, marriage and professions vividly establish undoubtedly, the aeons ago India culture and the life of Intellect India.

               The temple complex at Khajuraho, adhering to the shikhara temple style architecture, is a UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE. The temple is described by a lady who visited said that once upon a time there were seven hundred of them depicting the entire life cycle of a FEMALE from genesis, birth, marriage, domestic, social life, art, music, romance, drama, worship and what not all the aspects described and prescribed by Vedas to a Female. It was an open text book for obstetrics and Gynecology of a female. It is now just 22 of the temples that survived by the vandalism of Muslims mainly who were plunderers and dacoits of India.

               Indian tradition ( arises in the human being, in a state of Brahmatva, during prayers offered in a temple or even in their home, by blowing of conches (vibrations of Om-kar in it), peal of jingling bells of temples and the cattle around, moving the lighted lamp or camphor in a clockwise direction, use of extraordinary scented eye pleasing flowers of fragrance, all have been ascertained to provide a positive energy enthusiasm in the participating individual. Brahma simply stands for creativity. The oneness of oneself with the universal bliss is what was emphasized in the Intellect Society of India to whatever caste or profession he/she belongs to. The entire wealth of the land was given to the temples for not only use for the benefit of Knowledge Society, but also to protect the land when in danger of famine or threat by invaders.

Padnabhamkoti temple

            The recent opening of the two secret cellars of the Padnabhamkoti temple of Kerala of precious wealth of the land is a proof of the people’s faith in the culture of India. The fact that they were not opened since the year 1880 to-date is a proof that Intellect India protected itself from both the Muslims and the Western invaders of the Country. Unfortunate, that this culture has now received a blow from the certain quarters of the suppressed and the greedy people with the motivation of becoming rich by loot, theft and pilfering, and ciphering away, to secretly save in foreign banks, the wealth of the Nation by the unfaithful Indians, has been noticed and steps are being according to the law to punish them and bring back the money laundered away.

          The origin, of the Intellect India, cannot be easily ascertained. Since, we may regard, it tied down with the advent of the Vedas of the Bharat. Who and when Vedas were written, in the scientifically, perfect language of Sanskrit, is not known. Arguments have been put forward, by the present author that the Telugu, was perhaps, prior to the Sanskrit language in India. The only authoritative support of it is that the Telugu has originated, from the Brahmi Script. Madam Swarajyam has brought out in her magazine “Bala Bata” issue June 2011 the complete evolution letters of Telugu script from the 3rd Century AD. Mohanzadharo and Indus cultures dating back prior to 3000 BC yrs have revealed the existence of the Brahmi script. The Vedic literature has also identified nine different types of grammars to formulate the formula presentations of the craftsmanship, religious, trade, management and politics etc items of knowledge based society. This is a great contribution by the ancient INTELLECT INDIA. Of these only the “Pananiyam” grammar took deep root among the common people for description and promotion of the literature handed over mouth-to-mouth recitations and by hand-to-hand traditional skills training. Pathangali Rushi classified it as itself a section of Veda Vidhya (education). Its’ interesting, to note that Buddha literature exists, written in Panini Grammar.


             The origin of the Indian theatre or rather folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to religious ritualism of the Vedic time Indians. This folk theatre of the misty past was mixed with dance, ritualism, plus a depiction of events from daily life. It was the last element which made it the origin of the classical theatre of later times. Many historians, notably D.D. Kosambi, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Adya Rangacharaya, etc. have referred to the prevalence of ritualism amongst invader hunters.

            In such, a simple manner the theatre originated in India nearly 4000 years back i.e. of Rig Vedic times. There also must have existed, a theatrical tradition in the Indus valley cities, but of this we have no literary numismatic or any other material proof. May be the evidence is suppressed.

            The origin of drama and the theatre has been told to us in an aptly dramatic manner by Bharatamuni, the author of Natyashastra an ancient Indian text on dance and drama. Bharatamuni is said to have lived around the 4th century but even he is not aware of the actual origin of the theatre in India. He has cleverly stated in a dramatic manner that it was the lord of creation Brahma who also created the original Natyashastra (Drama). According to Bharatamuni, since the lord Brahma created the entire universe we need not question his ability in creating dramas.

            But Bharatamuni goes on to tell us that the original Natyashastra of Brahma was too unwieldy and obscure to be of any practical use. Hence, Bharatamuni, himself took up the task of making Natyashastra simple, intelligible and interesting.

            Thus the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni was supported to be understood by lay people. So the Natyashastra of Bharatamunii is not the oldest text on dance and drama, as Bharata himself says that he has only simplified the original work of Lord Brahma. The Natyashastra assumes the existence of many plays before it was composed, and says that most of the early plays did not follow the rules set down in the Natyashastra.

            But the Natyashastra itself seems to be the first attempt to develop the technique or rather art, of drama in a systematic manner. The Natya Sashtra tells us not only what is to be portrayed in a drama but how the portrayal is to be performed. Drama, as Bharatamuni says, is the imitation of men and their doings (loka-vritti). As men and their doings have to be respected on the stage, so drama in Sanskrit is also known by the term roopaka which means portrayal.

           According to the Natyashastra all the modes of expression employed by an individual viz. speech, gestures, movements and intonation must be used. The representation of these expressions can have different modes (vritti) according to the predominance and emphasis on one mode or another. Bharatamuni recognizes four main modes of what is to be portrayed in a drama 1. Speech and Poetry (Bharati Vritti), 2. Dance and Music (Kaishiki Vritti), 3. Action (Arabhatti Vritti) and 4. Emotions (Sattvatti Vritti).

          Bharatamuni also specifies where and how a play is to be performed. In ancient India plays were generally performed either in temple-yard or within palace precincts. During public performances, plays were generally performed in the open. For such public performances, Bharatamuni has advocated the construction of a mandapa. According to the Natyashastra in the construction of a mandapa, pillars must be set up in four corners. With the help of these pillars a platform is built of wooden planks. The area of the mandapa is divided into two parts. The front part, which is the back stage, is called the rangashrishu. Behind the ranga-shirsha is what was called the nepathya-griha, where the characters dress up before entering the stage.

          Bharatamuni has also specified that every play should have a Sutradhar which literally means 'holder of a string'. The Sutradhar was like the producer-director of today. Every play had to begin with an innovation of God. This invocation was called the poorvaranga. Even today, plays in Indian languages begin with a devotional song called Naandi. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata can be called the first recognized plays that originated in India.

           These epics also provided the inspiration to the earliest Indian dramatists and they do even today. One of the earliest Indian dramatists was Bhasa whose plays have been inspired by the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Bhasa's date cannot be definitely ascertained; but that he lived before Kalidasa is proved by the latter's reference to Bhasa as one of the early leading playwrights. As Kalidasa lived in the 4th century, Bhasa should have lived in the early centuries of our era. Bhasa was a natural dramatist who drew heavily from the epics, but Kalidasa can be called an original playwright.

          Kalidasa has written many plays some of which are 1. AbhijananShakuntalam, 2. Kumarsambhavam, 3. Meghadutam and 4. Malavikagnimitram. Kalidasa was the court playwright at the Gupta court. He lived at Ujjain, the capital of the Guptas and was for some days the Gupta ambassador at the court of the Vakatakas at Amaravati where he wrote the play Meghadutam.

         The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti. He is said to have written the following three plays viz. Malati-Madhava, Mahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Among these three, the last two cover between them the entire epic, Ramayana. Bhavabhuti lived around the 7th century A.D., when Sanskrit drama was on its decline, mainly due to the lack of royal patronage. The last royal patron of Sanskrit drama seems to be king Harshavardhana of the 7th century. Harshavardhana is himself credited with having written three plays which are 1. Ratnavali, 2. Priyadarshika and 3. Nagananda.

         But nevertheless despite lack of patronage two more leading playwrights came after Bhavabhuti, they were Shudraka whose main play was the Mricchakatikam, and the second dramatist was Rajashekhara whose play was titled Karpuramanjari.

         But the decline of Sanskrit theatre is evident from the fact that while Mricchakatikam was in Sanskrit, the Karpuramanjari was in Prakrit which was a colloquial form of Sanskrit. Rajashekhara has himself said that he chose to write in Prakrit as the language was soft while Sanskrit was harsh. Sanskrit plays continued to be written up to the 17th century in distant pockets of the country, mainly in the Vijayanagara empire of the South. But they had passed their prime, the later Sanskrit dramas are mostly imitations of Kalidasa or Bhavabhuti.

         As in the case of the other fine arts, the Indian theatre has left its mark on the countries of South-east Asia. In Thailand, especially it has been a tradition from the middle ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics.

        This had been so even in Cambodia where, at the ancient capital Angkor Wat, stories from the Ramayana and Mahabharata have been carved on the walls of temples and palaces. Similar, bas relief¹s are found at Borobudur in Indonesia. Thus, the Indian theatre has been one of the vehicles of enriching the culture of our neighboring countries since ancient times.

The Theatre

              The theatre is an integral part of INTELLECT INDIA. It was aimed not just for merry making but has been creatively designed since the days of Brahma, father of Prajapathi, to inculcate a firm feeling, enjoyment, exposition of various talents, for the Universal truths. The stories of the Cosmos and its violent movements endowed with Constellations and Galaxies were enacted and presented in a lucid simple style to the common man burdened with the mundane life and living. Much of that art has not been supported by the Muslim or the British Raj since their dogmatic views of life and living are totally different. Indian tradition as they put it is deeply attached with the different cultures in India in view of more than 600 dialectics. Each society or community in the wide spread regions of the ancient India had a unique power of understanding gthe theatre and drama of the life and particularly significant that of the Universal creation as whole. In a subsequent age of Vedas the Bharat Muni first wrote the “NATYA SASHTRA”. It contains 36 chapters, elaborated the Sanskrit presentations differentiating between what is later known as roopaka and Natya. The roopaka is meant to present interpretation and depiction of the realistic life in a thought provoking way. Ashwaghosha and Kalidas have carried the drama and theatre in much more artistic literary style. The Kalidasa an ardent devotee of Shiva brought in the deep fervor of Hindu mythology and metaphysical Philosophy. Celestial Gods and Goddesses characters have been brought out superbly for enactment on a stage of enlightened common people’s audience in India. His works of Malavikagamitra, AbhijHashakuntalam, and Vikramoravasiyam have won the hearts of the people and to-date in North India for the plays subtly involve the fanciful beauty, humor and a poetic dimension of the India Theater.

Music in Kalidas’ works

               There are references to sangita (music), gana (song), gandharva (classical music) murchhana( tonal shift), muraja (a kind of drum) and vina in many places of his dramas. In Abhijnasakuntalam and Ritusambaara (melody of Seasons) and in Meghdhutta he gave excellent plays for theater performances. What is significant he was the first one to adopt what is called the similies in the poetry-play lets. In”Uttar-Meghaduttam” he wrote about a Yakshini keen on playing on Veena to tone down the intensity of her feeling of sadness owing to the separation from her lord Yaksha. She wants to tune her vina to a particular scale- Murchhana (modal shift executed for getting particular notes). In “Kumarshambhaba” Kalidasa writes about Kinnaras awakening Shiva by singing Gita-Mangala in kaisika set in a particular murchhana. In “Malavikangimitra” and in “Vikramark vasiya” there are references to kriti (musical composition and madhyalaya) medium tempo and chatuspada that means compositions with four parts. Also chalika performance which was a highly developed form of classical dance accompanied by vina, venu and mridanga in which a song was sung in six- grama-ragas. Interesting to note that Kalidas writes about mayuri marjana (a kind of drum set with three heads)- left side tuned to gandhar, right side to sadja and the upper drum was tuned to madhyam. Shishupalavada by Sri Maagha, Naishadiya Charitam by Sri Harsha, kiratnjniya by Bharavi are some ancient Poetry works apart from those of Kalidasa. The novel Kadambari by Bana Bhatta dates back to 600-700AD, who was the world’s first novelist. In 700AD Ratnavalli by Sri Harsha and others like Naganada wrote several plays. Others are Sudraka, Bhasa and Asvagosh.

Koodiyattam Theater

             This is the only ancient Sanskrit drama and plays theater existing to-day in India that still performs these productions by INTELLECT INDIA. It was built by Chekyon community in state of Kerala and holds the perfect ART of craftsmanship of ancient India.


            Kudumiyamalai inscription: The inscription was composed in 7th century C.E. and the author is believed to be Mahendra Vikrama Varman I of the Pallavas. It was discovered in 1904. It was engraved in saregama or solfege notation complex rules evolved for composition of songs. There was very little scope for the imagination of the performer.

There were very few pieces for instrumental music which was entirely dependant on vocal music.There was a trend towards group music both in vocal and instrumental pieces. Only two important classical talas – cancatputa & cacaputa were used. Elaborate rules were laid down for performance of these talas. 

1. Veena among stringed instruments (Tala Vadya), Mrdanga

2. Membranophonic (avanaddha vadya) instruments and

3. Venu (flute)

among aerophonic (susira) instruments were the main instruments that were played.

           Stage-music had been highly developed. Definite kinds of music were fixed, played and sung behind the curtain. Kutapa sangita (group music) was used on the stage. Vocal music was sung with instrumental accompaniment and dance and grama-ragas in which they were to be sung were fixed for various acts of the drama. The language used for the songs was generally Prakrit.

Determination of Srutis  (pitch and microtone)  and gramas

            The first important contribution of Bharat was his discovery about the music prevalent in this country being based on two tones systems called “grama”. They were not scales but tone-systems. By a practical demonstration known as sarana catustaya he proved that the interval of notes in the “gramas” were as follows:

         Sadjagrama: 4 S, 3 R, 2 G, 4 M, 4 P, 3 D, 2 N = 22 SRUTIS 
         Madhyama-Grama: 4 M, 3 P, 4 D, 2 N, 4 S, 3 R, 2 G = 22 SRUTIS

                According to Bharat notes of two srutis (G and  N), notes of three srutis ( R and D) and notes of four srutis( S, M, P) were alone independent notes. There could be no musical note with one or five srutis.

Bharat recognised two more notes

            Anatra gandhar on the 11th sruti & kakali nishad 2nd sruti – thus nine notes – seven suddha notes and two vikrita notes.

He did not recognise komal rishav, komal dhaibat and tivra madhyam as independent notes.

                   1. Shadja –Sa ( C ) 2. Rishabha- Ri ( D flat and D Sharp) 3. Gandharva- Ga ( E flat E sharp) 4. Madhyama –Ma ( F flat F sharp) 5. Panchama –Pa ( G) 6. Dhaivata – Da ( A flat A sharp) 7. Nishada –Ni ( B flat B sharp) .

DHRUVA – The main composition of importance was DHRUVA which means “fixed”. These fixed compositions were set to a definite Tal and Laya in which there was a beautiful fusion of svara (notes), pada (words), and Tala.

According to Bharata, all songs which had set compositions and were sung by Narada were Dhruvas.

They were used for dramatic purposes. They were sung in grama-ragas. They were of five kinds:

PRABESHIKI- dealing with the main sentiment of the play at the time of entry of actors on the stage and

NAISHKRAMIKI at the time of exit of actors at the end of the act.

Another kind of songs different from the main sentiment called AKSIPIKI occurred in between the acts and were sung in fast tempo.

A song liberating the mind of spectators from distraction and bringing it back to the main sentiment were known as PRASADIKI.

A song sung to remove or mollify morbid affections of the audience caused by scenes of swooning, poisoning etc were called ANTARA DRUVA.


            From Bharat to Jayadeva, the supposed Golden Age of Hindu music. Music from 5th century to the 14th century: Gradual decline of Gandharva music and dominance of Desi Music: Tracing the evolution of formalized music we find that Samvedic music was the initial formalized music that was evolved out of folk music. The next step was Gandharva music as described in Bharata’s Natyashastra. It adopted the Samvedic scales, murchhna, Grama, etc. and created a new kind of musical system called Jatis. It laid down 10 important characteristics of Jatis, systematized and classified Jatis.

             Gandharva declined a great deal by the 10th century but had still survived through the 11th century and by the 13th century it was slowly converted into Raga music. Reasons : 

(a) It became too intellectual without much emotional appeal

(b) It became bound up with too many rigid rules and hardly left any scope of imagination of the artiste.


                           Gandharva or marga + desi music= Raga Music

                 The concern of Gandharva music was pleasant appeal to Gods where as the concern of Raga music was charming appeal to human beings. “ From svaras arose Grama, from Grama Jati and from Jati came Ragas” The grama ragas with varieties and sub-varieties were called by Sarangadev as ‘marga or margi-raga” Desi music was the music prevalent in different regions and sung by women-folk, children, cow-herds and kings according to their fancy. Matanga says that Desi was modelled on marga music in the sense that both had two parts: (a)Nibaddha and (b) anibaddha- fixed compositions and free alap or meandering movement of notes within the scale. Marga or classical ragas were ten

(1)grama-raga (2) Uparaga(3) Ragas (4) Bhasas (5) Vibhasas (6) Antarbhasas (7) Ragangas (8) Bhasasanga (9) Upagans (10) Kriyangas( the last four were called Desi raga)

          Kallinath in his commentary explains that some liberty was taken with the rules of marga raga but it did not have total disregard of the rules of margi-raga. The idea that Desi ragas were born out of foreign influence, particularly Muslim , seems unfounded They were only the outcome of an inner development.

             The best definition of raga I found in SANGITA-SAMAYASARA Svara barna bishishthe na dhwani veden ba poona Rajaya te jena sanchitam sa raga shamatah shatam (translated as) “That which is a particular kind of sound qualified by svara and varna and by which the mind of discerning listeners is pleasantly affected is considered to be raga by the wise”.

             Ashwaghosha blended the Buddhist Philosophy in the multi-culture theater of India, and gave the three classic works of “Buddha Charitra”, “Soundarananda” and Shariputra”. These have embedded in them a kind of rational thought, creativity and metaphysical content. The theatre has incorporated song, mime, dance and Natya. Crude and narrative art form of Theater has been with the Vanavashis and the manyam people who have developed indigenous instruments of music to give a rhythm for the Natya, dance, mime and the Song all together. Other types of ancient art of drama were lavani, burra kadha and the street night presentations. The artists were spending with the devotion and dexterity enactment of the different characters of the Drama and for Theater presentations for months together in practice sessions under the guidance of various Gurus.

            We know very little about the theatre of Sanskrit dramas. But generally those places play an important part in dramas, where dramatic scenes have been actually performed. Besides Ujjain, as a city of the Mahakal, is generally known to have been the place where Mahakal fair was periodically held when learned men from far and near assembled, where poets used to sing their poems and dramatists used to perform their dramas. The town is supposed by many scholars to have been the scene of Malati Madhava, the well-known drama of Bhavabhuti, while it was actually the scene of Mritshakatika of Shudraka. This play is a development of Daridra Charudatta of Bhasa who seems to be quite well conversant with Ujjain and he makes mention of Ujjain in his drama. We therefore propose to dwell upon Mritshakatika and Malavikagnimitra, which refer to Ujjain. The Mritshakatika, literally the clay-cart, also called the toy-cart, is a drama of considerable antiquity. The plot of the drama is based on the episode of Charudatta and Vasantasena which is supposed to have occurred during the rule of Palaka towards the close of fifth century B. C. The authorship of the work is attributed to Shudraka whom Col. Wilfore identifies with the founder of the Andhra dynasty of Magadha succeeding the throne by deposing his master, the last of the Kanva race. Dr. H. H. Wilson gives 190 or 192 A. D. as the date of this first Andhra king, and Rameshchandra Dutta gives the date of Shudraka or Sipraka as 26 or 27 B. C. and thus the period of the compilation of this drama comes between the close of the first century B. C. and the beginning of the third century A. D.

The Alchemy Wonders of India

Fig.21B The Alchemy Wonders of India.

               Sage Agasthya’s birth was through a fertilized egg in a pot as per Rig Veda 7.33.13 sloka. Sage Bhardwaja made the birth of Drona from semen of a male without the female ovum in a vessel called Droni. King Drupada Yagna brought forth Draupadhi and her brother Drushtadyumna using methods akin to cloning ( of the present day research trials in western countries).Sage Gauthama created twins Kripa and Kripi using vessels but using no instruments. Gandhari self-abortion foetus was collected by Sage Vyasa in hundred pots and gave birth to 100 kauravas and one sister. Manusmrithi Vishnu Dharmaothana Puranas gave the essence of cattle science and animal husbandary. Agni Purana by Vyasa gave manthras that by chanting them in a Yagna and using NaCl+AgI salt mixture create vibrations in the sky along with Agnihotri fire, to create clouds and obtain the rains. I have come across in the year 2009, an astrologer Yogi in Dwarakanagar near Don Basco primary School, who used the mantras to stop the heavy rain , just on the construction work of a cement slab roofing, on his house.

           Sage Parasara was the father of Global Botany knowledge. Vriksha Ayurveda gives the details of plant cell structure. The 4th chapter in it describes the photosynthsis process. Indian epic Mahabharat mentions that plants take water through their roots –termed padapa- and the leaves nurture with that water, the food syanadhana. Sage Parasara said seeds are of two kinds, Eka-dala-beeja and other dw-dala-beeja. He categorized flowers into several groups which is what Modern Botanists use invariably to locate their sources of growth. Four important plant diseases have been identified by Varahamihra in Bhrhat Samhita. He stated Vriksho Rakshati Rakshitaha.

          Atherveda gives eight ctgories of plants depending on their growth. Charaka Samhita( 600BC) species 4 categories of fruits and flowers. Sushrata Samhitha(1500BC) gives 10 catogeries of plants based on their utility. Horticulture is described in Upa-vana-Vinodhi by Sarangadhara 300AD(some say 1200AD). Mansonullasa is a book by Someswara in 1100AD.

Pridhivi Niraaparyan gives responses of plants such as their sleepy, happy and sarrow moods.

Indian alchemy: According to Multhauf and Gilbert (2008)

                 The oldest Indian writings, the Vedas (Hindu sacred scriptures), contain the same hints of alchemy that are found in evidence from ancient China, namely vague references to a connection between gold and long life. Mercury, which was so vital to alchemy everywhere, is first mentioned in the fourth to third century BC Artha-sastra, about the same time it is encountered in China and in the West. Evidence of the idea of transmuting base metals to gold appears in second to fifth century AD Buddhist texts, about the same time as in the West.

Alchemy in Ancient India

              The first metals by humans were the ones that could be used in their natural or near-natural states, i.e. gold, silver, and copper. The discovery of bronze, made by alloying copper with tin, ushered in the Bronze Age, around 3,500 B.C. Around 1,500 B.C, people discovered how to create iron by smelting iron ore. Since iron is so much stronger than bronze, it rapidly replaced it, and so began the Iron Age.

Significant progress in alchemy was made in ancient India

                 Will Durant wrote in Our Oriental Heritage: "Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing ,tanning,soap-making, glass and cement... By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation,steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts,compounds andalloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much of this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near and Europe; the secret of manufacturing” Damascus” blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India."

            An 11th century Persian Chemist and Physician named Abu Rayhan Biruni reported that they "have a science similar to alchemy which is quite peculiar to them, which in Sanskrit is called Rasayana and in Persian Rasavatam. It means the art of obtaining/manipulating Rasa, nectar, mercury, juice. This art was restricted to certain operations, metals, drugs, compounds, and medicines, many of which have mercury as their core element. Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond hope and gave back youth to fading old age." One thing is sure though, Indian alchemy like every other Indian science is focused on finding Moksha: perfection, immortality, liberation. As such it focuses its efforts on transumation of the human body: from mortal to immortal. Many are the traditional stories of alchemists still alive since time immemorial due to the effects of their experiments.

             The texts of Ayurvedic Medicine and Science have aspects similar to alchemy: concepts of cures for all known diseases, and treatments that focus on anointing the body with oils.

             Since alchemy eventually became engrained in the vast field of Indian erudition, influences from other metaphysical and philosophical doctrines such as Samkya, Yoga, Vaisheshika and Ayurveda were inevitable. Nonetheless, most of the Rasayana texts track their origins back to Kaula tantric schools associated to the teachings of the personality of Matsyendranath.

          The Rasayana was understood by very few people at the time. Two famous examples were Nagarjunacharya and Nityanadhiya. Nagarjunacharya was a Buddhist monk who, in ancient times, ran the great university of Nagarjuna Sagar. His famous book, Rasaratanakaram, is a famous example of early Indian medicine. In traditional Indian medicinal terminology "rasa" translates as "mercury" and Nagarjunacharya was said to have developed a method to convert the mercury into gold. Much of his original writings are lost to us, but his teachings still have strong influence on traditional Indian medicine (Ayureveda) to this day.

          The chief person to be mentioned is Nagarjunacharya, who dates back to 1st century BC and of 1st Century AD. He wrote several treatises and actually demonstrated how they do distillation, sublimation, calcinations, and alloying of metals is to be performed. Extracting copper from pyrites and use of metallic oxides in Ayurveda medicines was his paramount contribution. He was the first person who clearly demonstrated the Kajjal or black sulphide of mercury into Ayurveda treatments and medicine. One significant thing is that he being a Buddhist only could get the knowledge of the ancient INTELLECT of INDIA to regularize and present the alchemy in a rational manner. He was born under an Arjun Tree and got educated in Nalanda University. He was a faculty member of the University along with, Dinnage an expert of Logic & reasoning, Dhamapala – Brahmin scholar of repute and authority on Vedic Dharma. The very place of Nalanda was known as a VIHAR from which name the Bengalis referred it as BIHAR. It is located south of city Patna, in Bihar state, at a village place called “Bada Gaon”. It had 2000 gurus, 10,000 studentsa from all parts of the world. Hiena-Tsang stayed here for many years and left details of the excellence state of the University. The word VIHAR in ancient terms stands for a place of enlightenment and gain of knowledge. The Nalanda University Library consisting of about 28 lakh manuscripts has been burnt by Bhakito Khilji in 1194 AD. Kumargupta, Harshavardana, Ashoka, went through this university training programmes.


              Swami Vivekanada felt very bad that Indians couldn’t save their manusacripts and allowed the Muslim invader to burn them away to supply of bathing hot water, for about 1 lakh army invaders and plunderers for about six months burning these manuscripts. The situation with the manuscript libraries is even to-day it is worst with the negligewnce of the authority concerned to keep them documented in a digital form. The expense would be very nominal compared to the huge money involved in the various scams plaguing the country. There are several Sanskrit libraries of Manuscripts, like the great Oriental college libraries, Oruganti Library, Vijyawada Library, Andhra University Library, and Madras University Library. Innumerable collections are there with Adayar Theosophy Library and throughout North India, Baroda Maharaja Library, Jaipur Library, Raja Man Singh Library and especially the famous Saraswathi Badar of Nayak of Thanjavur dating back to 1535-1675 AD.

            There were four Nagarjunacharyas in total who have spread the knowledge of INTELLECT INDIA. Shri K. Shankar Menon wrote in English the details of “Rasavaiseshika Sutra” by the first Nagarjunacharya. Sarvepalli Radhkrishnan gives details of Vaisesika Siddhanta i.e. an atomistic and nuclear approach to understand the materials existence. Much details of “Khana” who thought of quantum of matter are to be brought by the scholars.

                   Professor Paul Kiparsky of Stanford University, Mendeleev was a friend and colleague of the Sanskritist Böhtlingk, who was preparing the second edition of his book on Panini, the author of a famed grammar of Sanskrit who lived in the fifth century BC, at about this time, and Mendeleev wished to honour Pânini with his nomenclature. Noting that there are striking similarities between the Periodic Table and the introductory Maheúvara or Úiva Sutras in Panini’s grammar, Kiparsky says:

            The analogies between the two systems are striking. Just as Panini found that the phonological patterning of sounds in the language is a function of their articulatory properties, so Mendeleev found that the chemical properties of elements are a function of their atomic weights. Like Panini, Mendeleev arrived at his discovery through a search for the "grammar" of the elements (using what he called the principle of isomorphism, and looking for general formulas to generate the possible chemical compounds). Just as Panini arranged the sounds in order of increasing phonetic complexity (e.g. with the simple stops k,p... preceding the other stops, and representing all of them in expressions like kU, pU) so Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weights, and called the first row (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon etc.) “typical (or representative) elements”. Just as Panini broke the phonetic parallelism of sounds when the simplicity of the system required it, e.g. putting the velar to the right of the labial in the nasal row, so Mendeleev gave priority to isomorphism over atomic weights when they conflicted, e.g. putting beryllium in the magnesium family because it patterns with it even though by atomic weight it seemed to belong with nitrogen and phosphorus. In both cases, the periodicities they discovered would later be explained by a theory of the internal structure of the elements.

                Kiparsky has examined the question of the optimality of the Siva Sutras elsewhere. He suggests that this optimality might have provided him with the confidence in a similarly optimal two-dimensional table of elements. The paths of Böhtlingk and Mendeleev crossed in many ways: Mendeleev lectured at the Academy when he was awarded its Demidov prize for his book Organic Chemistry, which had appeared in 1861, when Böhtlingk was on the nomination committee for the prize.

Alchemy in Medieval Europe

Fig.23B These symbols need to be analysed in terms of the prakrit languages in India of BRAMHA script.

             Also the Sankaracharya Bhasyham elaborated the details of Vaisheshika Siddahanta that gives Nuclear structures of matter.


          The disappearance of Himalaya Glaciers would be a great blow to the Ayurveda Medicine since most of the phenomenal numbers of medicinal plants grow in the climatic conditions of Himalayas. It is already found that as many as 800 varieties of medicinal plants have been pulled out of their base roots in Himalayas and exported away to the West.

         The idea of genetic identification and preservation of the essence of these medicinal plants is enough and the gene banks would serve the future generation of global bio-medicinal experts in future would be a misnomer. Since renewable resource in natural environmental conditions is a must for the sustenance of them. The dandakaryna forest has totally dwindled during the British Raj for export of wood to feed and fuel the Industrial revolution in Great Britain. What surprises one is the silent effort of the British Raj administration to develop a grid and net works of the canals, river transport, peoples trade market channelization, railways and the export via the completely controlled sea shore ports is really amazing. The strategy they adopted to smash this ancient land and its INTELLECT INDIA is in fact, worthy of study since how much of unity of purposeful underground organization has been built with a great devotion of objective gain of wealth and imposition of their faith in human values. The railway lines were built to export away all the available rich resources of bio-diversity of India to the nearby ports under the total control of British Raj was a gigantic effort and smooth operation that has brought a disaster of India natural resources along the valleys and river surroundings through the forests. Living with nature was made impossible and Vanavashis and Manyam dwellers have thus been uprooted along with the great Rushis who were protecting and safeguarding the wealth of the Nation.

The theater of Carian Nysa

Fig.24B Natya Sashtra and Theater in India

A Dionysiac procession. Detail of the stage of the theater of Carian Nysa

                       An option was the Caucasus, on the eastern edge of the known world, because Dionysus was believed to have arrived in Greece from the East. It may be interesting to note that they were the first to make statues of Buddha, who was dressed in an Indian dress. The most famous examples were those in the Bamyan valley (technically not in Gandara but Bactria), which were destroyed by the Taliban in the spring of 2001. The Sacae and Parthians were still fighting for the possession of the remaining petty kingdoms, when the Yuezhi nomads (or Kushans) invaded. They were able to reunite the region, although it is not exactly clear when this happened. (The famous king Kanishka is possibly to be dated 127-170BC.) From their capital Peshawar in Gandara, the new kings ruled a powerful Buddhist empire, in which the Indian, Iranian, Sacan, Parthian and Greek soldier elements were integrated.

The Ancient Indian Legend about the World Mountain Meru

                    Our sources on Alexander they give some information about the Gandarians too. Their towns were surrounded by brickwork fortifications, they fought with spears and arrows no swords and shields are mentioned and their leaders wore cuirasses. They had beautiful buffaloes (Alexander wanted to send them to Macedonia), and their towns were ruled by an aristocracy. Once, a queen is mentioned. And the Gandarians buried their dead in wooden coffins, which were placed on the hills around their towns. This custom still exists among the Kafirs, a local tribe near Chitral. One of the strangest aspects of Alexander's campaign in Gandara is the discovery of the town Nysa and the mountain Meros. The place can not be localized with absolute certainty. According to the Macedonians and Greeks, this was the place where the god Dionysus was born. Indian sources speak about Meru, the central mountain on which the world rested. The god that was worshipped on the Meru and was identified with Dionysus, may have been Shiva or Vishnu.

Fig.25B Mountain Meru and Gandara Place with town Nysa

                 “There is one description of the sanctuary, which must have played an important role in the religion of the Gandarians. It can be found in the Life of Apollonius of Tyana by the Greek author Philostratus (c.175-c.245). This Apollonius was a charismatic teacher who, according to his biographer, visited India in the first century CE. It is not clear whether Apollonius did indeed visit Gandara, but it is certain that Philostratus used a document that contained reliable information about India. Apollonius and his disciples crossed the river Cophen, themselves in boats, but the camels by a ford on foot, for the river had not yet reached its full size here. They were now in [the country in which the mountain of Nysa rises, covered to its very top with plantations, and you can ascend it, because paths have been made by cultivators. They say then that when they ascended it, they found the shrine of Dionysus, which it is said Dionysus founded in honor of himself, planting round it a circle of laurel trees which encloses just as much ground as suffices to contain a moderate sized temple. He also surrounded the laurels with a border of ivy and vines and he set up inside an image of himself, knowing that in time the trees would grow together and make themselves into a kind of roof and this had now formed itself, so that neither rain can wet nor wind blow upon the shrine. And there were sickles and wine-presses and their furniture dedicated to Dionysus, as if to one who gathers grapes, all made of gold and silver. And the image resembled a youthful Indian, and was carved out of polished white stone.” [Philostratus, Live of Apollonius of Tyana 2.8; tr. F.C. Conybeare]

         Obviously the Greek Alexander was also a looter of Gold and Silver from the Indus Civilization cities and especially from the Divine places of worship, known as the temples.

          After Alexander conquered the Indus valley he returned to the west where he died on 11 June 323BC. His kingdom was divided between his generals, Gandara and the other eastern provinces were given to Seleucus, the first king of the Seleucid Empire. But his position was threatened in the west and he needed an army to defend himself, therefore, in 304BC, he conducted negotiations with the Indian king Chandragupta (321-297), whose capital was Patna on the Ganges (304BC). Seleucus gave up the eastern satrapies, and in return received a great number of elephants-five hundred, according to the ancient tradition which made him invincible on the western front. From now on, Gandara was part of the Indian empire that is known as that of the Mauryan kings.

'Coin' of Chandragupta

Fig.26B The coin of Chandhragupta

                    But Gandara remained open to Greek influences and the successors of Chandragupta and Seleucus continued to exchange ambassadors. The Mauryan king Ashoka (272-232), who conquered almost the entire subcontinent and converted to Buddhism, announced his rock edicts not only in Indian, but also in Greek - at least in Gandara and Arachosia, which suggests that there was still a strong presence of Yavanas (Greeks). After 240BC, the Bactrian leaders, who were of Greek descent, revolted from their Seleucid overlords, but king Antiochus III the Great restored order (206BC). Soon after, however, Antiochus was defeated by the Romans, and the Bactrian leader Euthydemus declared himself independent. Not much later, the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom expanded into Drangiana, Gandara and the Punjab, where Mauryan power was in decline.

Buddha on a Kushan coin.Greek legend: Boddo. Drawing Bente Kiilerich

             This invasion, which took place in 184, revitalized the Greek culture in the region south of the Hindu Kush, where Euthydemus' son Demetrius created a new kingdom, consisting of Gandara, Arachosia, the Punjab and a part of the Ganges valley (Delhi). It was a multi-ethnic society, western Iranians and Indians lived together. Iranian cults, Hinduism and Buddhism are all known from second-century Gandara. Coins were modeled on the drachmas of Indian legends. The city of Taxila was rebuilt after the invasion by the Greeks which lasted from c.184 to c.170; till King Menander (c.125) reunited the Indian kingdoms and even invaded the heartland of the contracted Mauryan empire where he took Patna. Menander is known from Indian sources as Minedra; one of the holy texts of Buddhism is called Milindapañha, 'Questions of Menander'. After Menander's death, his kingdom fell apart in at least forty petty kingdoms (their existence is known from coins).
       Before the end of the second century, several had been taken over by the Sacae.

              This is the usual name for the nomad tribes of Central Asia, who always tried to invade the territories to their south, after 110, they launched raids on Gandara and infiltrated in the southern Indus valley.

            Since Alexander The Great had invaded Ancient India in 325 BC, leaving a Greek state (Gandhara) that endured hardly a decade and it could have been the other way around that Greeks stole many items of INTELLECT INDIA. It is interesting to see that Herodotus connects the black inhabitants of Africa to the dark Indians, which must have made it easy to move Nysa to the valley of the river Swat, in the mysterious Indus country that was discovered by Alexander the Great. Here, he visited a city called Nysa near a mountain called Meros, 'thigh', which remined the Macedonians of the myth that Dionysus was born from Zeus' thigh. The presence of ivy was sufficient evidence to prove the connection. Behind this story undoubtedly is the ancient Indian legend about the world mountain Meru. The story by Arrian of Nicomedia is told here; a description of this Indian sanctuary has survived in the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus, a late source that nevertheless contains authentic information about the Punjab.

             As Alexander marched through India he fought battles, built altars, and founded cities. Other cities he called Alexandreia in honor of his own name.As they journeyed, Alexander and his soldiers saw many new and strange sights. They passed through boundless forests of mighty trees beneath whose branches roosted flocks of wild peacocks. They saw serpents, glittering with golden scales, glide swiftly through the underwood. They stared in wonder at fearful combats of beasts, and told strange stories when they returned home, of dogs that were not afraid to fight with lions, and of ants that dug for gold. At length Alexander reached the city of Lahore and marched on to the banks of the river Sutlej beyond. He was eager to reach the holy river Ganges and conquer the people there.

               But his men had grown weary of the hardships of the way, weary of fighting under the burning suns or torrent rains of India, and they begged him to go no further. So, greatly against his will, Alexander turned back.The Greeks did not return as they had come. They sailed down the rivers Jhelum and Indus. So little was known of India in those days that they the Greeks believed, at first that they were upon the Nile and that they would return home by way of Egypt. But they soon discovered their mistake, and after long journeying reached Macedonia again. It was only the north of India through which Alexander had marched. He had not really conquered the people, although he left Greek garrisons and Greek rulers behind him, and when he died the people quickly revolted against the rule of Macedonia. So all trace of Alexander and his conquests soon disappeared from India. His altars have vanished and the names of the cities which he founded have been changed. But for long ages the deeds of the great "Secunder," as they called him, lived in the memory of the Indians. And it is since the time of Alexander that the people of the West have known something of the wonderful land in the East with which they had traded through many centuries. Alexander entered India in 327, encountering some of the toughest fighting of his career in the crossing. He reached the Indus River in 326.None of the Greeks had ever encountered anything to prepare them for India. The terrain, the monsoons, the fierce tribes, all combined with the long years of campaigning to take some of the heart out of the Macedonians.

        Alexander's geographers had assured him that just beyond India was Ocean, the great body of water that completely encircled the world. India itself was surely no bigger than the Persian Empire. We do not know what in Alexander's mind, but most historians guess that he had no idea of the true size of the subcontinent and that he truly believed he need make only one more push to bring the entire eastern world under his dominion.

Defeat of Porus
Porus (Old Indian Puru)

        This Emperor in the Eastern Punjab was defeated in 326 BC by Alexander The Great.

Fig.27B The Alexander’s failure to conquer India

                 Two factors combined to bring Alexander's march to a halt, he began to realize that India was much bigger than he had thought, and a war with an Indian king named Porus showed that India would not fall easily to the Greeks.Porus was powerful both as a man and a king. He stood seven feet tall, a widely-feared ruler and warrior. He fielded an army that was a match for the Greeks, but Porus' army had an additional advantage: war elephants. This marked their first real encounter with elephants in battle, and it terrified the Greeks. Worse yet, Alexander met Porus during the monsoon season and faced him across a river in flood. Despite all this, Alexander defeated Porus, killing the king's two sons. Alexander forced Porus into an alliance, a policy he had followed elsewhere.

              The Greek/Latin name Porus is a rendering of the Indian Puru, the throne name of the ruler of the kingdom Paurava. This state was situated between the rivers Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab). Its capital may have been at the site now known as Lahore.

              When the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great arrived in India in the spring of 326, he was defeated by Porus the Hindu King, in his first attack on the Indian Kingdom. After having waited, full six monthe till the onset of heavy rains he made a treacherous agreement with the Omphis, the king of Taxila (Takshaçila), near modern Rawalpindi, another kingdom in the Punjab. This is how Porus was deceived by an Indian King. To Porus, the arrival of the westerners was a great threat after all, it was obvious that Omphis would use his allies in a war against Paurava. However, for the time being, he seemed safe, because the approaching monsoon rains would make it impossible to cross the Hydaspes. Therefore, he refused to send envoys to Taxila to offer tokens of submission. This was a grave error, because Alexander wanted to conquer all the India.

In May, the Macedonian army started to march to the Hydaspes.

                Porus was prepared for war. With his army, he had taken up a position on the east bank, intending to prevent Alexander's crossing. A bit more to the north, one of his sons was guarding the river, to make sure that Alexander would not outflank the Pauravans. As it turned out, Porus' son was no match for the Macedonians: during a thunderstorm, they crossed the Hydaspes, and the Indian chariots and the elephant army was unable to move through the rain-soaked mud. He was defeated and killed( ruthless behavior of a westerner), and Alexander started to move against the army of his father. The Indians were outnumbered and outclassed by the Macedonian army. However, Porus still had one dangerous weapon: the elephants, an army unit that the Macedonians had never encountered before. He placed these animals before his infantry men, knowing that the Macedonian cavalry could not attack them because horses fear elephants unless they have had a special training. On his wings, the Pauravan king stationed his chariots. When the Macedonians reached the place where he was waiting for them, they deployed their phalanx and moved slowly towards their enemy. Alexander commanded the heavy cavalry and the mounted archers of the Dahae, which were on his right wing. Porus saw that his left wing chariots were outnumbered by the Macedonian cavalry and moved his right wing chariots to the left; at that moment, the Macedonian cavalry commander Coenus suddenly moved to the now undefended Indian right wing and encircled the enemy lines, attacking them in their rear. Meanwhile, the heavy cavalry in Alexander's neighborhood and the Dahae were victorious against Porus' chariots, and archers were attacking the elephants. The Macedonian archers and phalanx started to kill the elephants' drivers and the animals panicked. From this moment on, the Indians were attacked from all sides: they had to defend themselves against the phalanx and their own elephants in front of them and the Macedonian cavalry in the rear. Nearly all Indian cavalry were killed, a few infantry men managed to flee, a wounded king Porus surrendered only after the destruction of his entire army. When Alexander asked him how he wanted to be treated, he gave the famous reply 'as a king'. Porus had behaved like a king indeed and Alexander could appreciate this.

              The Indian leader accepted his defeat and was reappointed as satrap of his own kingdom. Omphis of Taxila must have been disappointed that he was forced to reconcile with his enemy, after all, he Alexander to fight against his eastern neighbor. He had to accept an even more humiliating fact Porus received additional territories to the north of his kingdom. However, not all Indians accepted that they were now subjects of the westerner. A relative of Porus declared himself king of Paurava (and was consequently also called Porus) and continued the struggle in the eastern part of the country. When Alexander's army started to march against him, he fled, probably to the kingdom of Magadha in the Ganges valley. Alexander intended to conquer Magadha, but his men refused to go any further (text), and the Macedonian king announced the return. This meant that Porus was to be the leader of a border satrapy, an exceptionally important function.

            Three years later, when Alexander was dead and the territories were divided by his successor Perdiccas, Porus was recognized as defender of the eastern border (text), under the supervision of the satrap Peithon of the Punjab. He was still in function when the satrapies were divided for the second time after the death of Perdiccas (the settlement at Triparadisus). One of Alexander's successors in 317BC, a satrap Peithon (not to be confused with the former Peithon) tried to subdue the leaders of the eastern provinces. The other satraps united and offered resistance. One of them was Eudamus, the commander of the Macedonian forces in Taxila. In order to procure Porus' elephants, he had him murdered. After the removal of a loyal ruler and his troops, it became possible for the king of Magadha, Sandracottus (Chandragupta Maurya), to conquer the Indus valley.

Shahnameh by the Persian poet Firdausi

                   This meant the end of the Macedonian empire in the east, less than ten years after the invasion. In the 1960, an Indian scholar named Buddha Prakash argued, basing himself on the famous medieval epic named Shahnameh by the Persian poet Firdausi, that Alexander was defeated' by Porus, that the two men became friends, and that this explained why Alexander left him so much territories. This theory, which has been revived in Pakistan in the 1990's, can not be accepted as serious scholarship, but Prakash was right to stress that Porus, who had suffered a terrible tactical defeat, was in the long term the real victor.


                 Having secured the upper Indus River valley, Alexander began to push into the interior of India. The land became dry, but the cities and kingdoms were formidable. As they pressed on, the locals spoke of endless kingdoms to the east, and another great river, and still more kingdoms beyond that. No one knew of any end to them. At last, his men refuse to go any further. They had refused before, more than once. Each time, Alexander harangued and persuaded and sulked in his tent for days, and eventually the men, terrified of the prospect of being without their hero, had given in. Not this time. Alexander realized the temper of his army and reluctantly gave the command to return to Persia. This was no small task in itself. Going back by way of the Himalayas and Afghanistan was out of the question. The best course seemed to be to work their way down the Indus River to the Indian Ocean.

The Return

              It took a year to do it. The Greeks had to fight their way down the Indus, the lower course of which had many strong cities. At one of these, Alexander was wounded by an arrow that pierced his lung. (Recent finding of dead people in Alps shot by arrows needs to be thoroughly examined). For three weeks he was near death, but he eventually recovered. Once at the Indian Ocean, the Greeks built a fleet of ships. Half the army travelled with Nearchus by sea, while Alexander took the other half by land along the coast, each army supporting the other. The return to Persian was a heroic accomplishment and is yet another testament to the strength of discipline among the Macedonians. Alexander reached Susa in 324. He had been on campaign continuously for five years.

Muslim Empire in India

               It was left to Muhammad Ghori to build up a Muslim Empire in India on a secure footing. He was also a ruler of a small kingdom in Afghanistan. But he was interested in conquering northern India and adding it to his kingdom, and not merely in getting gold and jewellery like Mahmud. His first invasion was directed against Multan in 1175 AD, which was successful. He advanced into Gujarat in 1178 AD.

             And advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavids in Panjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu. By 1182, Sindh was also captured. Punjab was captured by 1186 AD. In 1191 Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj's kingdom. Prithviraj Chauhan, who was the king of Delhi at that time, received contingents from other Rajput kings and defeated him in the First Battle of Tarain (1191). Prithviraj's along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. Prithviraj Chauhan, who was the king of Delhi at that time, received contingents from other Rajput kings and defeated him in the First Battle of Tarain (1191). This is how the First war of Tairan begun. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him in spite that his army men wartned him.

            In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhmmad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhmmad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him. Prithviraj Chauhan ceased the fire following a letter of treacherous treaty. Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput army was in a relaxed mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. However the Rajput army could raise a protection against Muslim army and they retreated. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. Thus he defeated Prithviraj in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 since Prithviraj brother Jayaraj joined hands with the Gori to defeat his brother for the sake of the Kingdom Monarchy. That was suicidal since having killed Prithviraj Chauhan the Gori told Jayaraj that when he dcieved his own brother what gaurante is there that he wont decieve him as well. He removed Jaya Raj eyes and left in the forest and told him to enjoy the Kingdom.

              Gori next captured Delhi and Ajmer and thus laid the foundation of Muslim Rule in India.. He also defeated Jaichandra (Gahadval Rajput, ruler of Kannauj) at the Battle of Chandweri in 1194 AD. “Ikhtiyar – ud – din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji”, one of Ghori’s commanders, annexed Bihar and Bengal and destroyed Nalanda and Vikramshila Universities.

Delhi was to remain under Muslim rule for the next 700 years till 1857 and under British rule till 1947.

           Hindus who came close to liberating Delhi during the seven centuries of Muslim rule were Rana Sanga in 1527, Raja (Hemu) Vikramaditya in around 1565 (2nd battle of Panipat), and Shrimant Vishwas Rao who was the Peshwa's son and was co-commander of the Maratha forces in the 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761.

The Rajput Resistance to Muslim Rule : ManSingh Tomar

            In spite of the establishment of Muslim rule in Delhi and UP (Uttar Pradesh) in the former kindoms of Prithiviraj Chauhan and Jaichand Rathod, the Muslim invaders could never overrun the entire country. The Rajput dynasties like the Tomaras of Gwaliar and the Ranas of Mewad still continued to rule central India. One such Rajput ruler was Man Singh Tomar the king of Gwaliar. Man Singh put up a stout resistance to the Lodis and he succeeded in halting the Muslim ruler Sikandar Lodi's southward march at Gwaliar. While the Tomaras of Gwaliar held back the Muslims from advancing into Malwa, the Ranas of Mewad held up the banner of Indian independence from Mewad in those trying times of Muslim aggression in India. In South Rajasthan especially, the Rajputs had defiantly preserved their writ by resisting the Delhi Sultans. The center of this Rajput resistance was the kingdom at Chittor.

The History of Rani Padmini

              In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Sultanate of Delhi - the kingdom set up by the invaders was nevertheless growing in power. The Sultans made repeated attack on Mewad on one pretext or the other. Here we may recollect the story of Rani Padmani who was the pretext for Allah-ud-din Khilji's attack on Chittod. In those days Chittod was under the Rule of King Ratansen, a brave and noble warrior-king. Apart, from being a loving husband and a just ruler, Ratansen was also a patron of the arts. In his court were many talented People one of whom was a musician named Raghav Chetan. But unknown to anybody, Raghav Chetan was also a sorcerer. He used his evil talents to run down his rivals and unfortunately for him was caught red-handed in his dirty act of arousing evil spirits.

           On hearing this King Ratansen was furious and he banished Raghav Chetan from his kingdom after blackening his face with face and making him ride a donkey. This harsh Punishment earned king Ratansen an uncompromising enemy. Sulking after his humiliation, Raghav Chetan made his way towards Delhi with -the aim of trying to incite the Sultan of Delhi Ala-ud-din Khilji to attack Chittor.

           On approaching Delhi, Raghav Chetan settled down in one of the forests nearby Delhi which the Sultan used to frequent for hunting deer. One day on hearing the Sultan's hunt party entering the forest, Raghav-Chetan started playing a melodious tone on his flute. When the alluring notes of Raghav-Chetan flute reached the Sultan's party they were surprised as to who could be playing a flute in such a masterly way in a forlorn forest.

              The Sultan despatched his soldiers to fetch the person and when Raghav-Chetan was brought before him, the Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji asked him to come to his court at Delhi. The cunning Raghav-Chetan asked the king as to why he wants to have a ordinary musician like himself when there were many other beautiful objects to be had. Wondering what Raghav-Chetan meant, Ala-ud-din asked him to clarify. Upon being told of Rani Padmini's beauty, Ala-ud-din's lust was aroused and immediately on returning to his capital he gave orders to his army to march on Chittor. On being persuaded by her husband Rana Ratansen, Rani Padmini consented to allow Ala-ud-din to see her only in a mirror. On the word being sent to Ala-ud-din that Padmini would see him he came to the fort with his selected his best warriors who secretly made a careful examination of the fort's defences on their way to the Palace. But to his dismay, on reaching Chittor, Ala-ud-din found the fort to be heavily defended. While returning to his camp, Ala-ud-din was accompanied for some way by King Ratansen. Taking this opportunity, the wily Sultan treacherously kidnapped Ratansen and took him as a prisoner into his camp.

             Ala--ud-din showed his true colours and demanded , that Padmini be given to him and in return Ratnanen was to get his liberty. Word was sent into the palace about the Sultan's demand.

             The Rajput generals decided to beast the Sultan at his own game and sent back a word that Padmini would be given to Ala-ud-din the next morning. On the following date at the crack of dawn, one hundred and fifty palaquins (covered cases in which royal ladies were carried in medieveal times) left the fort and made their way towards Ala-ud-din's camps The palanquins stopped before the tent where king Ratnasen was being held prisoner. Seeing that the palanquins had come from Chittor and thinking that they had brought alongwith them his queen, king Ratansen was mortified to his surprise from the palanquins came out, not his queen and her women servants but fully armed soilders, who quickly freed Ratansen and galloped away towards Chittor on horses grabbed from Ala-ud-din's stables.

            On hearing that his designs had been frustrated, the lustful Sultan was furious and ordered his army to storm Chittor. But hard as they tried the Sultans army could not break into the fort. Then Ala-ud-din decided to lay seige to the fort. The seige was a long drawn one and gradually supplies within the fort were depleted. Finally King Ratnasen gave orders that the Rajputs would open the gates and fight to finish with the besieging troops. On hearing of this decision, Padmini decided that with their men-folk going into the unequal struggle with the Sultan's army in which they were sure to perish, the women of Chittor had either to commit suicides or face dishonour at the hands of the victorious enemy. The choice was in favour of suicide through Jauhar. A huge pyre was lit and followed by their queen, all the women of Chittor jumped into the flames and deceived the lustful enemy waiting outside. With their womenfolk dead, the men of Chittor had nothing to live for. Their charged out of the fort and fought on furiously with the vastly Powerful array of the Sultan, till all of them perished. After this phyrrhic victory the Sultan's troops entered the fort only to be confronted with ashes and burnt bones of the women whose honour they were going to violate to satisfy their lust.These women who committed Jauhar (Johar) had to perish but their memory has been kept alive till today by bards and songs which glorify their act which was right in those days and circumstances. Thus a halo of honour is given to their supreme sacrifice.

Rana Kumbha

                            Rana Kumbha who ruled from Kumbhalgad also put up a stout resistence to Muslim incursions into Rajputana in the 14th century. His capital Kumbhalgad which is a formidable fortress in densely forested Aravalli Ranges facilitated his resistance to the Muslims. This was one of the few times when the Rajputs used guerrilla tactics against the Muslims.

The Resistance of Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga)

                  The next chapter of Rajput resistance to Muslim aggression was in the year 1527 when the Timurid ruler babar invaded India. Babar first struck at the ruler of Delhi who at that time was Ibrahim Lodi. At a battle fought at Panipat, Babar defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi and captured Delhi. Babar next turned his attention to the most powerful Hindu Kingdom in North India. This was the kingdom of Chittod ruled by Rana Sangram Singh. The clash of the Rajput and Muslim armies took place at Sikri. The Rajputs fought bravely and many perished in the cannon fire which Babar was using. The battle of Sikri gave Babar his second victory in India and saw the establishment of the Mughal Dynasty (the last Muslim dynasty to rule India).

Rana Udai Singh

                   Despite the defeat of Rana Sangram Singh in the battle of Sikri, the resistance of the Ranas of Mewad to Muslim rule continued for the next 100 years. Rana Sangram Singh's son, Udai Singh was an infant when his father died after the battle of Sikri. His uncle tired to kill the child and crown prince Udai Singh. But the supreme sacrifice of his nurse Panna Dai who misled the uncle by offerring her own son for being killed, saved Udai Singh. Udai Singh was brought up secretly till he attained youth. He subsequently defeated his uncle and assumed the throne of Chittod. He continued his father's legacy of preserving the independence of Chittod from the Muslim invaders. The city of Udaipur in Mewad bears his name.

The city of Udaipur

                         This city and the forts that dotted the hills surrounding it were the heartland of the Rajput resistance to the Muslims. Here Muslim Rule could never be established for any length of time all through the 700 years when the Muslims occupied different parts of India.

Maharana Pratap

                     Udai Singh's son was Maharana Pratap who lead the Rajputs against Akbar's armies and preserved Rajput rule in Mewad. Rana Pratap was faced with the formidable challenge of renegade Rajput princes like Raja Todar Mal and Raja Man Singh who had joined forces with the Muslim rulers.

The Battle of Haldighati

             In the Battle of Haldighati fought between Maharana Pratap and the Mughals; the Rajputs were not able to overcome the combined strength of the Mughals and the renegade Rajput princes who had played the role of traitors. But Maharana Pratap who was badly hurt in the battle, was saved by his wise horse Chetak, who took him in an unconscious state away from the battle scene. Although Maharana Pratap was not able to thwart the Muslims successfully, the saga of Rajput resistance to Muslim rule continued till the 17th century when the baton Independence from Muslim tyranny was taken up by the upcoming power of the Marathas, who brought about an end to Muslim domination of India.

           Jai Singh II was supremely talented - politically, intellectually and on the battlefield, he was known as the warrior-astronomer. In 1696 he had earned the title of 'Sawai' meaning 'One and a Quarter' (Intelligence) from emperor Aurangzeb after the emperor was impressed by his wit and pluck , a title which was proudly borne by all of Jai Singh's descendants.

           The Kingdom of Kachhawahas spread out a lot in all spheres, eventually encompassing a large area which abutted the kingdoms of Mewar (Udaipur region) and Marwar (Jodhpur region). The history of Kachhawahas can be traced back to Duleh Rai , son of Sodh Dev, the Kachhawaha ruler of Narwar (Near Gwalior), migrated to Dausa.

            Duleh Rai was a Kachhawahas who could trace his lineage to Rama, hero of the sun-born dynasty immortalized in Ramayana. He was married to the daughter of Chauhans of Ajmer. Duleh Rai's also known as 'Tej Karan', his son Kabil Dev is known to have established dynastic rule in Amber which was the most important stronghold of the Minas.

             Amber is situated 11 kms out of Jaipur on the Delhi to Jaipur road. The Kachhawahas originally hailed from Narwar (Near Gwalior) where they reigned for over 800 years. A martial alliance between a Kachhawahas prince, Tej Karan, and a rajput princess of Chauhans of Ajmer resulted in the capturing of the region of Dausa. Tej Karan was able to defeat the Bargujras who ruled half of Dausa, the other half being under the dominance of the Chauhans.

            Tej Karan's descendants converted the hill top on which Amber Fort was later built, recognizing its Virtue as a potential military stronghold. The Site was eventually princed from its original inhabitants, the susawat Minas, and the Minas were granted guardship of the Kachhawahas treasury in return.

              The Kachhawahas, despite being devout Hindu belonging to the Kshatriya (warrior) caste, recognized the expediency of aligning themselves with the powerful Mughal Empire. They paid homage at the Mughal court, and cemented the relationship with marital alliances. They were handsomely rewarded for their bravery defending the mughals in their various skirmishes. With war loots they were able to finance construction of the fortress palace at Amber, which began in 1592 by Maharaja Man Singh, the Rajput commander of Akbar's Army. Man Singh was known to be a navratna (One of the Nine Jewels) in the court of Akbar.

           Maharaja Man Singh who ruled from 1590-1619 had a multi-faceted personality with varied interests. He started ateliers and departments devoted to art, crafts, literature and the performing arts. Some of the Crafts Traditions for which Jaipur is famous for are like enameling (Minachari), paper mashing and carpet weaving, were introduced by him with artisans being brought in form Lahore, Sialkot, Multan and Gujrat. He patronized many poets, authors, and scholars at his court and was found of dance , music and drama.

Craftsmanship (The sthapathi)

              The shilpkar or artisan ( sculptor in this case) who developed an innate relationship with his work as he translated through his hands, the inner image of Figure that offered itself to him, in his heart, learnt the lesson of detachment alongside. He made the offering of his labor of love and devotion to a temple without a single trace of his name or the accounts of them written in Talapathra (Palm Leaves) treatises have been burnt by Muslim Invaders in a barbaric act of vandalism of the peace loving and attitude of pardoning the enemies of the country.

             Vikramaditya had about nine gems of people known as Navaratna, 1. Kalidasa: poet and drama prodigy 2. Dhanvanthari: physician 3. Kshapanaka: poet 4. Sanku: poet 5. Ghatakapara: poet 6. Vetalabhatta: poet 7. Varahamihira: the Astronomer 8. Amarasimha : lexicographer and 9. Vararuchi: litteratuer & grammarian.

                The Brahmi inscriptions engraved in the pillar credits Gupta king Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375 AD-414 AD) with the construction of the Iron Pillar. The Iron Pillar, 7.5 meter tall and weighing approximately 6.5 tonnes, is made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality. The Iron Pillar of Delhi is considered a tribute to Lord Vishnu, the patron deity of the Gupta kings and it is believed that once a figure of Garuda, the carrier-bird of Vishnu, crowned the capital of this slender pillar. The inscriptions mention that the pillar was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri and historians have identified this place as modern-day Udayagiri. But how and, more importantly, why the Iron Pillar was later relocated to Delhi remains a question shrouded in mystery. Even the amazing rust-resilient nature of the pillar had been a baffling riddle for archeologists and metallurgists. However a recent study by IIT, Kanpur claims to have unraveled the mystery. Nevertheless, the Iron Pillar of Delhi is a glowing testimony to the virtuosity of ancient Indian iron-smiths.

Corrosion Resistance

                    The celebrated Iron Pillar of Delhi is widely regarded an architectural wonder for the way it has defied rust through the last 1600 years. The Iron Pillar has long been an enigma for metallurgists who have been unable to unravel the reason behind this stubborn resistance to corrosion. Made of 98% wrought iron, this tall, sleek pillar is a bona fide proof of the mastery Indian ironsmiths achieved in the extraction and processing of iron.

                 The Iron Pillar at Delhi of 7.5 meters height, 40cm diameter, weighing 6 tonnes, is an intriguing piece of architecture well-known for its astonishing resistance to corrosion for over 1600 years. It was built in the time of Gupta Kings. Located at the center of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, the Iron Pillar is the solitary Hindu relic in the sprawling Qutb complex constructed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak after plundering the existing Hindu temples. The researchers have now state that the iron pillar has lot of phosphorus content inside but the outer coating is by “Misawite” which is a combination of Iron, Oxygen and Hydrogen. Buddha’s bronze statue found in Bihar, which never rusted over the 2000 years of its life to-date, is also another example of INTELLECT INDIA. [The Hindu 29th August 2002].

                 That justifies the fact that INTELLECT INDIA has discovered many fundamental elements of the periodic table. The claim of Swedish researchers regarding the discovery first few fundamental elements, as many as 12 elements of the periodic table need to be thoroughly reexamined. The gunpowder was used by the warriors of the Vijayanagar Empire in 13th Century across the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh, when they have used canon fire berthed in warrior underground tracks and years later by Tippu Sultan in the missile fire power to fight the British. This also reveals the expertise of the Indians in producing Oxygen and Hydrogen separately to treat the iron to obtain the rust proof coating materials. The Indian Intellect is admirable for its anti-corrosion knowledge.

              Craftsmanship has reached a state of perfection in the Mohanzadharo and Indus cultures the extinct civilizations of India in building the ports, trade with foreign lands, architectural living of people in well laid cities and the houses with facilities of water flow, storage and chemical & metallic use in pottery and the construction works. This is a proof against the idea, as westerns often repeatedly project and propagate for their missionary zeal that the Brahmin cult Intellect, is the only one in India. Often neglected and not taken notice by the Nationalists is that the 1000years rule by the Muslims has brought in a ruthless suppression of the craftsmanship of India and made them to build monuments for the death of the rich and worst even is to build palaces with decorated walls, with looted diamonds and gold from the temples. Even during these periods of Muslim invasion and capture of jealous kingdoms in India, the systematic advent western foreign traders have gathered lot of details and scriptures depicting the craftsmanship excellence in India. Gone are the details of how the Iron Pillar in Delhi was built. Similarly the detailed notes and palm-leaf writings giving details of the different rocks and the hilly regions that were suitable to build the Fine architectural temples of India. This systematic and well planned and organized theft of knowledge material was shared and fought over also, by different groups of western traders to India. The notable are the Denmark, Portuguese, Spanish, French and the English traders and pirates. Portuguese during the time of Vijanagar Empire of Hampi, were referred in Telugu language as “Budd’atha Kee’chulu” (squirrel-like bandicoots) in view of their copper color shinning moustaches. They had a free access in the country since foreigners were welcomed and treated with utmost respect as distant land visitors. Little the HONEST people of India could guess the ulterior motivations of their visits. Most of them subsequently have succeeded in establishing their colonial power regions in India, as berths of sea trade transporting precious stones, agricultural produce, mineral materials, gold, silver and precious jewellery ornaments wealth and the loot from India. Their involvement behind the in-fights among the greedy power monger Rajas and Kings of India is very evident.

             The craftsmanship of mints in India of the Gold, Silver coins and block making and production of Metallic (Pancha Loha) Idols was copied but was heavily relied since the Roman times perhaps even to-date. Romans and Egyptian etc civilizations trusted the HONEST INDIA to make their seals and trade exchange money blocks, in mint workshops in India and used them in their countries. That is the reason behind different kinds of seals at different points in India is found.

Shree Padmanabhaswami Temple in Tiruvanathpuram

                     The proof of such a craftsmanship is the import of (Sungahda Dravyas) sacred scented and flavored medicinal juices and other scents supplied from the region of Anatha Padmanabha temple of India by the present day London British traders. (Local TV report dated 7th July 2011). These medicinal, sacred and the scented preparations were of age old Knowledge based Society of IN TELLECT INDIA. No patent propriety rights exist at a Global level for these productions & manufacture means it tatmounts to simple exploitation for quick money making. The temple vaults one of them was opened in the year 1931 by the then state authority of Travancore with ruling powers vested in Austin an Englishman, the Shree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma. There they found four more inside cellars under the names, mahabharathkonathu kallara, sree pandarathu kallara, vedvynakonathu kallara and saraswathikonathu kallara. Four brass chests contained old coins. Granary storage like thing, full of gold and silver coins. Over which there were several gold pots. A wooden chest to the ground had six chambers. In it were diamonds, rubies, emerald and other precious stones. There were 300 gold pots and four vancheds or coffers. The operation started with traditional auspicious time on Sunday December 6th, 1930, at 10.00AM with special religious rites. The book written by Emily Gilchrist Hatch in 1933 thanked the Travancore Government, she said when state needed money they opened the vault just one cellar in it. Attempt made in 1908 was thwarted by the Cobra serpents around the wealth. The book by Hatch gave a description of the large wooden chests that were used to gather the daily offered coins by the devotees. The large artefacts, how they reached the vaults, is a mystery.

                It appears during the turmoil of the Muslim and Western invasions the dedicated INTELLECT INDIA, laid special emphasis in collecting and storing the wealth of the Nation for the future use of after the liberation from the invaders. The wealth was accumulated and practically the vaults were (like present day Swiss Banks of secret wealth) where different kingdoms and Temple treasury was secretly kept.

                  Now it fell in the hands of the Endowment Department and the Archaeological Survey of Government of India which were a creation of the British Rule in India. The laws have not been amended or proper National Spirit is behind the operations of securing this wealth for Museum displays.

                 Of course, the National and International media got stuck with the thought that how such vast wealth and innumerable artefacts accumulated in the vaults and remained safe without apparent pilferage for such a long period of time.

                 The answer is point blank that HONEST INDIA and INTELLECT INDIA can achieve what other nations would only dream off.

Indigenous Art and Craft of India

Astronomy and Terrestrial Events Tables and  Charts

                    In addition the year may be given in numbers or words or both. Sometimes the year is given as chronogram(bhutasamkya), with digits expressed in words for items associated in particular order. The suggested numbers have to read in reverse order(according to the principle Ankanam Vamato gatih, numbers run leftward). Sometimes both common era and Regnal year can be found.

Time Wheels of India

Fig.28B The Time Wheel of India Amazing!

Kaliyuga Era

                Kaliyuga era is supposed to begin with Kali aeon. Traditional associations with events of Epics and Puranas. The Kaliyuga is the creation of Astronomers for Chronological base, for Astronomical and calendar based calculations for accounting the PRALAYAS (recycling of the creation of the Universes) of the Universe. The initial date of Kaliyuga era corresponds to Friday, February 18, 3102BC at the time of astronomical conjunction of Sun, Moon, Earth, and Planets at the point of Nakhsatra Mesa Rasi. Earliest Kaliyuga era in inscription is Aihole inscription dated Kaliyuga 3735 and Saka 556 corresponding to 634 AD.

Harsa Era

               Harsha Era was prevalent in the area of Mathura-Kannuaj starting with 457BC. But there seems to be no common such era in India before Saka and Vikram Era.

                Age old in fact over the bygone aeon’s art is the Indian knowledge about the Universe, Constellations and the planetary systems. The science of the Universe whether the westerners and their followers appreciate or not is an INTELLECT INDIA that might have spurred several contemporary human civilizations to gauge the Universe and make some kind of predictions of oncoming terrestrial events and the effects that influence either in a good or bad way the Human life on the Earth. The charts preparation preceded the discovery of Trigonometry, number system, geometry and the difference analysis (that led to Calculus) and the tables of constellations, planets and the stars along with the solar & lunar based calendar systems are the forerunners of the present day almanacs of Modern design and practice.

Fig.29B The Konark Time Wheel of Sun

                   Time Wheels of India rock cut carvings adorn the SUN temples most of them were destroyed by the jealous foreign (British) invaders. One thing is quite clear INTELLECT INDIA is the only one that named the calendar months in terms of the constellations of the Universe using both the SOLAR and the LUNAR movements as observed in the sky by an ordinary individual and the common man and women in India who is aware of ranging from simple year date (regnal or era) to detailed year month tithi (lunar day), week day and other calendar and astronomical dates. The Kona’rk (kona meaning the angle and the Sun as ark or curve) temple is an outstanding proof of the Astronomy and Astrophysics knowledge that Hindu people had since time immemorial. About eight different metallic or material elements were used to produce the Shri Sun idol.

                  The first rays of rising Sun fall on the Sun idol inside the Gharbha Gudi and it was kept hanging by a magnetic rock kept in the ceiling and over which a pagoda type sculpture was built. The foreign invaders of India during those days used refer it as black pagoda. The temple was built with 1200 sculptors and 40 crores of rupees were spent in 1242 - 1255.A.D. The 24 wheels stone chariot was the base seat were Lord Sun was kept with the North facing seven horses and the temple was constructed situated at a height of 227 feet. The wheels were sculpted located on the North and South sides of the rock.

                   Chariot at a height of 9 feet and what amazes is the one foot protruding rock These wheels can be used even to-date the exact movement of the Sun and fixing the Astronomy time with the notions of Sun Dial fixing of the time. Stone measurements for Astronomy study was the extraordinary knowledge the INTELLECT INDIA possessed. The sculptures on the Chariot describe the 10 (dasa) Avataras and the life cycle of a common man in India. One can climb to the top of the pagoda over several steps climbing about 10 feet height and the sides of the steps exist the sculptures of Elephants, Lions and new-manifestation children.

                 The pirates of the sea have brought in lot of destruction to it and by 17th century it was ransacked many a times. The temple was easily accessible to them from the Sea. It seems the power of the magnetic rock was pulling away the pirate ships near to the shore, as from a distance of 40kms in the sea. Unfortunately the temple entry was totally prevented by placing solid rocks at the entry points from all the four sides by the Governor of Bengal J. A. Bordolin. In front of the Chariot is located a rostrum for Dance and Music probably for recitation of Vedas and sacred mantras, with the rising Sun rays passing through it fall on the main idol deep inside part of the Temple.

                In front of the main temple the Nine Planets were sculptured but Governor has shifted away them from main entrance to a distant place and kept in a separate temple structure built for that purpose. Main beautiful figures sculptured and located on the temple were however moved away by the British Raj to England to adore their country. Technical knowledge of shaping the Chlorite and the Latarite stones not available in that region for the purpose of temple building seems to be so sophisticated that the entire knowledge and all the treatises in the form of Pothis (palm leaves and birch bark pages written with Indian colored ink books) have been stolen or destroyed to kill the INTELLECT INDIA permanently. The sculpture art was so nice and fine with the deep sense of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmos and the Universe creation, and is found to be beyond the description even by a language like Sanskrit. The Muslim invaders looted the entire wealth of the temple and the remaining art works have been shifted away to a great extent by the westerners. The imposing structure however can be seen even today from about one kilometer from the sea.

Old Saka Era

             Some of the early Khartoshi and Brahmi insciptions cannot be dated to Saka or Vikrama era's. So they are classified to Old Saka Era distinguishing from Saka Era 78 AD. But there are many disagreements between scholars on which inscriptions should fall to Saka Era and Old Saka Era. Evenmore controversial is the exact origin of the said Era. And still more controversial is the exact date of the historical epochs mentioned with this Era. So this can be said to be one of the speculative Era.

Saka Era

                     It is generally agreed that Kanishka was the first to use Saka era, so the origin is given to him. But kushana chronology itself is debated. Saka era is labeled in various ways such as saka-nrpa-Kale, saka-varsesv-atitesu, Saka-varse, Salivahana sake, sake and so on. Except the earliest years Saka era dates are labeled saka year. The Era starts at 78AD.

Jain Nirvana Era

              This date starts with Nirvana or salvation of Last Jain Tirthakarna Vardhamana Mahavir. While Vicarasreni (1310AD) in Merutunga (Prakrit) gives date as 470 Years to vikrama Era, Nemichandra (1084AD) in Mahaviracariam(prakrit) gives the date as 605 years and 5 Months to before the start of Saka Era. So the dispute will be there as the Mahavira date is not certain. The Sravanabelagola Inscription equating Vir- Nirvana year 2493, Vikrama 1888 and Saka 1752 is an example.

Saptarsi Era

                Fig.32B The Vir- Nirvana year 2493, Vikrama 1888 and Saka 1752 is an example

               Saptarsi Era also called Laukika, Sastra, Pahadi or Kacca is an imaginary cycle of 2700 years. The calculation is based on Saptarsi (Great Bear) which stands for 100 years in 27 nakshatras. Pahadi refers to the use in hills of Punjab and Kashmir. Lukika and Kacca refer to omission of hundreds. Since it is mainly used in Astrology it is called sastra Samvat. The Puranas give different dates and confuses this era.

Fig.33 Saptarsi (Great Bear) which stands for 100 years
in 27 Nakshatras.

Brahaspati 12 Year Cycle

                 Brahaspati cycle is based on twelve year cycle of sidereal revolution of Jupiter. Some Gupta Feudatories, Kadambas, Rashtrakutas used this in some inscriptions.

Brahaspati 60 Year cycle

                  This is originally calculated by Jupiter transition from one rasi to another. Due to discrepancy of four days every year, the cycle of requires suppression of one Jupiter year every eighty-five years. This sixty year cycle is usually dated in name of the years then in numbers.

Buddhist nirvana Era

                   Cantonese records say each year after passing of Buddha was represented by a dot and so the date of Buddha is 486BC, the start of Buddhist nirvana Era. But there is no agreement in Buddhist world. So the dates are disputed.

Vikram Era

             This Era starts in 50 BCE by King Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya regained his ancestral kingdom in Ujjain by expelling the Sakas from there after 9 years of their rule (66-57 BCE). In order to commemorate his victory over them, he introduced a new era called Vikram Samvat (or Malawa Samvat) in 57 BCE. This story is also disputed.

Gupta or Vallabi Era

                  Due to absence of this era in early inscriptions of Guptas, the date of origin of this era is questionable. Accession of Chandragupta I. The dates are calculated by adding years 319 to 322 years to that is found in the inscriptions.

Aguptaiyaka Era

          The Gokak inscription dates itself to 845 th regnal year of unknown Aguptaiyaka kings. The inscriptionbelong to 6th century AD. So the era should start at 3rd or 2nd century BC. Speculation is it is connected with Chandragupta Maurya and local king Aguptaiyaka.

Kalachuri-Cedi Era

             The date of origin of this era is also doubtful. The date of 248AD based on the accesion of Abhira king Isvara dutta is now not valid.

Ganga (Gangeya Era)

                Many inscriptions of Eastern Gangas and Eastern Kadambas in Karnataka , Andhra and Orissa. The Ganga Era is also disputed ,but it is generally agreed it starts in 475AD based on inscription of Kadamba feudatory Dharmakhedi.

Sri Harsa Era

                Al-Biruni (11th century AD)suggests that Harsa Era was prevalent in the area of Mathura-Kannuaj starting with 457BC. But there seems to be no common such era in India before Saka and Vikram Era. In fact Al-Biruni learnt in Kashmir that Sri Harsa era started with Sri Harshavardhana in 606AD, the Mathura pandits seems to have tricked Al-Biruni to such date.

Bhatika Era

               The historical origin of Bhatika era is disputed. It starts at 623 to 625AD. The dispute here is due to association the close synchronisation and association with Islamic Hirja Era 622AD in western India and close to regions of Arab Incursions. Absence of Early inscriptions is explained as the solar modification of Muslim era. Mr.Dasharatha sharma says it represents era of Bhatia rajput Clan. Several unpublished inscriptions near Jaisalmar have cited to indicate Bhatika samvat. However Mr. Mirsa and Mr.Sarcar argue some of the inscriptions are Harsa Era.

Kollam Era

                      This era starts at 824AD, used in Kerala and around Kerala mostly in Malayalam and Tamil sometimes in Sanskrit as well. The reason for the start of the Era is controversial as it marks the starts of the foundation of Kollam, but Kollam existed prior to it. Some scholars say it is related to Saptarsi era, but the geographical distance makes the theory untenable.

Bhauma Kara Era

                 This era started by Bhauma Kara kings of orissa. The era starts in 831AD probably of ruler Ksemankaradeva. Earlier the era was considered to be harsa era.

Nepali or Newari Era

      Fig.34 Era of Vikramaditya in 50 BCE

        Fig.35B The Era starts in 871AD
The era starts in 871AD.

                     This era was started by Jayadevamalla. The era starts in 871AD. The earliest Nelpali inscriptions date themselves to Saka or Vikrama or Gupta or Licchavi Era.

Chalukya-Vikrama Era

            The era was started by Chalukya Vikramaditya IV upon accession to throne in 1076AD. The inscriptions of Vikramaditya mention this era, many times the Saka era is also mentioned.

Ref: 1. Indian Epigraphy by Richard Salomon.

2. Indian Epigraphy by D.C . Sircar.

3.Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra nath Sen.

Data from :WEB Posted on March 20th 2009 myth and Reality:

                 Some foreigners have the habit of distorting the FACTS of India with a view to make things quite uncertain about this Great Nation. Many a time emotional Indian researchers add to this confusion with their unskilled enterprise to exhibit their patriotism.

The 108 number

                 What truth is in the number system of Indians is difficult to know since most of these records have been destroyed by the Muslim invaders. This number whose sum total is NINE stands as a very significant number in Indian thought. They sought to regard the distance between Moon and Earth as about 108 times the diameter of the Moon. Similarly the distance between Earth and the Sun as about 108 times the diameter of the Earth. Surprisingly the sought the diameter of the Sun as about 108 times the diameter of the Earth. They believe that the Japa Mala (thread used for daily worship with beads) has 108 beads and they are the 108 steps to reach the divine power. Ayurveda specifies 108 MARMA (keynote )points in the human body. They have about 108 links and 108 joints of great significance for treatment of a diseased person. Srichakra Yantra used to as a foundation for the Goddess Lakshmi Temples has 108 interludes 54 for Male and the other 54 for a Male representation. 27 signs with 4 padas gives the number 108 stars.The 12 houses in Astrology with 9 planets of influence gives the number 108. “1” stands for goodness and “0” for Sunya i.e.emptiness and 8 stands for the directions in the space. Sanskrit has 54 letters with the powers of Shiva and Shakthi they give the number divine as 108. There are 108 Puranas of Vyasa, 108 upanishads, 18 chapters in Bhagvat Gita have 108 verses, and Brahma day of 4320000 years is divisable by 4 to give the number 108000. We note the product 108=1x2x2x3x3x3=1^1+2^2+3^3. Eight stands for the eight direrctions.North is Rahu, NE is Sani Saturn, East is Ketu, West south is Guru Brahspathi, South is Buddha, South West is Venus Sukra, West is Moon, West North is Mangala, Kuja are specified for Astrology calculations in Hindu Calandar reckoning.

The Simhastha

                  The Simhastha, as its name implies, occurs at Ujjain every twelfth year, when Jupiter enters the sign of Leo. The principal bathing day is the fifteenth of the bright half of Vaishakha, which usually falls some time during May. Sinhastha fair at Ujjain, belong to any of the five traditional religious doctrines. They are (1) Bairagees, (2) Gosawees, (3) Udasees, (4) Nath Sampradayees, and (5) Aghorees. The fair lasts for about a month, the last day being the fifteenth of the bright half of the Vaishakha. On this day all these saints and Sadhus go in procession to Rama Ghat on the bank of the river Sipra and worship their flags there. The total number of persons, who assemble in the fair including saints, Sadhus and pilgrims, comes in the neighborhood of five lakhs. They discuss philosophical and metaphysical subjects, but they seldom meet together on a public platform.

Simha Era

                Simha era starts in 1113AD in Kathiwar region. The foundation of the era is not certain, originally the era was attributed to conquest of Gujarat by Gujarat Chalukya king Siddharaj Jayasimha but now it is attributed to some unknown ruler.

Ambika Mata is a Devi (Goddess) temple

                     This little-known temple in Jagat village, about 50 km southeast of Udaipur, dates to 961 AD. Its numerous fine sculptures are in an excellent state of preservation. Ambika Mata is a Devi (Goddess) temple, with images of Durga and many other female divinities. Ambika, the principal image in the shrine, is a form of the mother goddess who is associated with Durga through her lion mount. She is also connected to the Jains through a vision in which she advised Vimala about building his Adinath temple at Mount Abu. The red flags seen in this photo mean that the temple is still being used for worship.

Sarasvati : Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

Fig.37B Brahma’s Wife
            Brahma's wife here carries a water-pot (lower left hand), a Veena (upper left hand), and a fragmentary attribute, possibly another vina (upper right hand). Although the water-pot is an attribute of Brahma, it is also an independent attribute of Sarasvati in her older aspect as a river goddess. (Brahma's book is also an independent attribute of Sarasvati, in her role as goddess of learning.)

           Because Sarasvati and Brahma share several attributes in common, it is not always easy to distinguish Sarasvati from Brahmani, the female form of Brahma.

Kubera: God of Wealth

Fig.38B Kubera - God of Wealth

                    One of the dikpalakas, Kubera is lord of the yakshas and guardian of the north direction. In his left hand, Kubera holds a pomegranate. Beneath his left hand is a personified water jar. Beneath his right hand, a personified mongoose dangles a snake.


                Ambika Mata temple, Rajasthan: Vayu, god of the wind and guardian of the northwest direction, rides an antelope and holds a furled banner.

Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

                 The female form of Vishnu bears his club and discus. A damaged object in her left lower hand is, possibly, a conch. A reclining maiden is visible under her left knee. Her right hand dangles a rosary.

Brahmani Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

Fig.40B The Female form of Vishnu

              The female form of Brahma can be identified, in spite of her missing left upper arm, by her remaining attributes: a water jar, rosary, and lotus. The real giveaway, however, is her three faces, the primary face gazing out at the viewer, with two secondary faces in profile behind.

Shiva: Ambika Mata temple, Jagat
Shiva holds a lotus in each of his lower hands. In his upper hands, he holds a trident and cobra.

Surasundaris: Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

Fig42B Surasundari Ambika Temple Jagat

                     Countless beautiful women, called Surasundaris, inhabit the heavenly court. The figure in the left photo, removing a thorn from her foot, can be compared to similar figures at Khajuraho. The pose of the figure in the right photo is also familiar from other temples.

Ambika Mata temple, Jagat


             Countless beautiful women, called Surasundaris, inhabit the heavenly court. The figure in the left photo, removing a thorn from her foot, can be compared to similar figures at Khajuraho. The pose of the figure in the right photo is also familiar from other temples.

Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

Surasundari and Vyala

Fig.44B Photo right, a mythical creature called a vyala engages in combat with two smaller figures

                    Photo left, on a projecting offset of the temple wall, a Surasundari arranges her robe with the help of an attendant. Photo right, a mythical creature called a vyala engages in combat with two smaller figures, male warriors who are attempting to tame it. One warrior rides its back, while the other crouches beneath its upraised paw. Female figures will occasionally be substituted for the warriors. The vyala motif, always placed in a vertical indentation between projections of the wall, is ubiquitous in medieval Indian temples. Symbolically, it seems to represent a struggle to subdue the passions. The vyala's body is always a rampant lion. Its face takes several forms, the most common of which is a horned lion, like the kirttimukha masks which adorn the temples.

Ladies of the Heavenly Court
Ambika Mata temple, Jagat

                This section of the wall is decorated with goddesses in various postures: holding a vina (photo left), playing a vina while supported by an elephant (photo center), and holding a child (photo right).


               The Dancer surprisingly uses all the posture combinations in order to gain control over certain specific areas of the human body, thereby having a power to transmit the specific force to the desired part of the body. These are known as Mudras usually employed by the Purohits and the Brahmin Priests to perform the needed Pujas and Worship etc. The street dancers also invoke their deities with these Mudras to achieve a degree of fineness in their performances. Here deities stand for not the God as understood by the Western and Muslim rulers but as the specific forces that are operational with the performance of the Dance. Shiva was regarded as the best performer and therefore he stands as the supreme power of controlling the Universe. He is known as Nataraja. Small wonder the beauty of an Indian bronze lies in the manner movement is arrested and frozen into a static form. For instance, Shiva is represented as a cosmic power with its dancing pose (or Nataraja) epitomizing the rhythmic motion of life. The cave temple of Shiva, located on Elephanta Island in Bombay Harbor, was excavated out of the rock sometime in the 6th century. Inside, it contains a square linga shrine.

                        The interior of the cave is decorated with a dozen large relief sculptures of the great god Shiva in his fierce and kindly aspects: dancing, practicing yoga, playing dice with Parvati, slaying the demon Andhaka, receiving the Gages River in his hair, etc. The north entrance to the cave (plan), shown here, is on axis with the great three-headed Shiva on the south wall, while the linga shrine is placed off-center (so as not to obscure the three-headed Shiva) on the east-west axis. This dual scheme allows Shiva to be presented in his iconic and aniconic forms. The island of Elephanta was named by the Portuguese after a stone elephant found there in the 16th century. The historical name of the island was Gharapuri.

                   It is very dark inside the cave, so only a small selection of photographs, illuminated by what little natural light there is, can be presented in the following pages. The viewer is recommended to consult Michell and Zimmer (vol. 2, plates 248 - 265), for a full appreciation of this marvelous site.

 Linga Shrine: Cave temple of Shiva :Elephanta Island : 
                  The linga shrine in the cave temple of Shiva is unusual in having four entrances, one at each compass point. Beautiful dvarapalas guard the entrance openings. Although detached from the walls, the shrine is, like everything else in the cave, cut from a matrix of living rock.Extensive damage to the guardians and other sculptures was caused, it is said, by the Portuguese. However, more than enough remains to justify the general opinion that the sculpture here is among the finest in India.

Columns : Cave temple of Shiva :

                                                      (see the adjoining schematic drawing).

                 The columns display a compound geometry. Their squared-off lower shafts support fluted round upper shafts which expand into pincushion capitals. The upper shafts and capitals bulge as if compressed by the (illusory) weight of the ceiling. Small ganas at the upper corners, now mostly destroyed, mark the transition between the lower and upper shafts. Carved brackets and beams reinforce the convincing simulation of a structural building. Neither the central-shrine plan nor the form of the columns had lasting influence on later temple architecture. By the mid-seventh century, shrines were located at one end of the hall, while Elephanta-type columns were supplanted by unfluted columns with pot-and-foliage capitals.The statue of Eternal Shiva (Sadashiva) at Elephanta is rich in multiple associations and meanings, an attempt to render the Godhead in visible form. The great height (7m) and darkness of the statue reinforce Shiva's mysterious awesomeness, which must have been even more impressive during worship, when the statue would have been illuminated by the flickering light of numerous small oil lamps.

Fig.49B The design of Temple at Elephanta Caves

                       There are hints from early travelers that the cave may also have been plastered and painted, although no traces of this remain today.Shiva's majestic central face (Tatpurusha-Mahadeva) is calm and detached, the eyes closed in meditation. His right –facing –head (Vamadeva, Uma) is peaceful and feminine, with out-thrust lower lip (like a flower?), contemplating a lotus. His Left-facing Head (Aghora-Bhairava) is fierce and masculine, scrutinizing the head of a cobra. The three faces taken together express the contradictory nature of the Divine, which gathers up and transcends all opposites. This form of Shiva has a fourth head (Sadyojata-Nandin), which is here present conceptually but not physically. It is seen in other sculptures, for example, a smaller Sadashiva that was recovered from the Elephanta site and is now in the Prince of Wales Museum in Bombay.

             SHIVA NATARAJ portrays the ultimate Scientific Philosophy in the body language of Indian iconic imagery. The universe is believed to have been created by the vibrations of Shiva's kettle drum. His ceaseless Cosmic Dance of destruction and creation depicts the ceaseless motion within each element despite its apparent state of rest. (Remember the constant motion of electrons within atoms?) The five-pronged flames emerging from Shiva's aureole (a circle, which has no beginning or end) signifies the five basic elements as also the five ceaseless functions of Shiva (creator, preserver, destroyer, liberator and eliminator of ignorance).

Lion : Cave temple of Shiva :
             Elephanta Island The small lion crouches, with right paw raised, in front of the east shrine, whose linga is visible photo left. Nobody really knows what these animals are doing here (a similar, but more damaged, lion is placed on the other side of the shrine entrance).

Hindushahi Kingdom

                 Jaipal. Peshwar was the Hindu King of Hindushahi Kingdom, and Mahmud of Gazani already fought with him when Subuktagin was the Kingnof Ghazni as soon Mahmud became a king he attacked Jaipal an old enemy in 1001-1003 AD.About 15000 Hindu soldiers were killed. Along with 15 relative he was taken prisoner to Mahmud and 5,00,000 people were enslaved by him. He freed Jaipal on oayment of 25000-Dinars but he refused to live his disgrace and cast himself upon a funeral pyre and died.
               Jaipal’s son Anadapal who became king of Hindushahi Kingdom was attacked by Mahmud. With the help of other Kings of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauji, Delhi, Ajmer etc. he Mahmud deployed 6000 archers who were killed by Khokhars, a race o people who came to the rescue of Anadpal. But Anndapal’s elephant ran amuck and as he left battle field Mahmud could kill about the kingless Hindu soldiers numbering about 20,000. Thus a most organized effort to prevent invaders went astray.

            Nagarkot was very famous for its wealth kept in its temples, Mahmud decided to invade and like swarm of locusts, his army men destroyed everything in its path, that paralysed Nagarkot with fear the defenders opened the city’s gates and fell to ground in submission. Mahmud got so much jewelry, gold and silver that when he returned to his capital his people congregated to see the incredible wealth of India.
1014AD Thaneswar
        Mahmud came to know of the riches of Thaneswar’s temples and in 1016AD he invaded Thaneswar, the Hindus wanted a compromise but Mahmud refused. His looters and gang rapists destroyed the city massacred the Inhabitants and plunderd the sacred shrines temples.
1015AD: He attacked Kasmir Valley and plundered everything that he could lay his hand.

1019 AD He attacked Kannauj in January King RajpAL Pratihar ran away and invaders looted the sacred temples and many innocent people were killed.

1021AD Kalinjar   : The other Rajput kings became angry with Rajpal Pratihar who accepted the superiority of Mahmud of Ghazni, the King of Gandda Chandel and others killed Rajpal Pratihar and happily Mahmud returned to punish the Rajputs. In the attack of Kalinjar Mahmud was satisfied with the money he got and so he returned to Ghazani.

1023   He attacked Lahore city and destroyed it totally of Hindu inhabitants.


             The Somnath temple which enshrines one of the twelve Jyotirlingas was so highly revered that people from various nook and corners of the country came to offer their prayers here. As many as 2000 Brahmin priests were engaged in temple activities and the revenue collected from ten thousand villages were used for its maintenance. Prayers were announced by ringing the bell which was attached to a golden chain. Its walls were nothing less than pages of History. The exquisite sculptures were a reflection of the times and the pillars even had the names of the sculptors carved on them.


                 Somnath Temple has a legend behind its establishment. It is believed that Lord Chandra (Moon God) was very proud of his beauty. Due to this reason, he was cursed by his father-in-law Daksha, to get smaller. In order to get rid of this curse, Moon God prayed to Lord Shiva at Prabhas. Lord Shiva became happy with the penance of the Moon and reduced the curse to an extent. This incident led to the periodic waning of moon.


             The seven-storied structure of Somnath is tall to 155 feet. Constructed in the Chalukya style of architecture, Somnath Temple reflects the expertise of the Sompuras that are master masons of Gujarat. The temple is sited in such a manner that no mass of land can be seen from Somnath seashore till Antarctica. This information is presented in an inscription, written in Sanskrit, on the Arrow-Pillar of the sea-protection wall at the temple.

             Maintaining the original site, the present temple is said to have built for the seventh time. The first temple of Somnath is regarded as a structure in Gold, made by Moon God himself. In the 7th century, Somnath Temple was reconstructed by Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat. The second structure was destroyed by the Arab governor of Sind by the name of Junayad in 725AD. Again in 815AD, the third structure was built by Nagabhata II, who was a Pratihara King. This structure was erected out of red sandstone. This structure was erected out of red sandstone.

            In 1024 the 16th invasion of India the temple was raided by Mahmud Ghazni, who took camel-loads of jewels and valuables from here.

            The Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki King Bhima of Gujarat (Anhilwara) took the initiative to rebuild the temple during 1026-1042. For the fifth time, the wooden structure was replaced with a stone structure by Kumarpal.

            Consequently, the temple was destroyed in 1297 by the Sutanat of Delhi and once again in 1394. The last attack was made by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1706. The present temple was built in 1995 by Shree Somnath Trust in the company of the Government of India. Today, Somnath Temple is under the maintenance of Shree Somnath Trust.

Somnath's glory and fame are legendary

             It is said that people from the remotest parts of the country came to worship at the shrine; revenues collected from ten thousand villages was spent on the maintenance of the temple. Two thousand Brahmins (priests) served the idol and a golden chain attached to a huge bell plate announced the commencement of prayers. Ghazni Mohammed descended on Somnath in 1024 when the temple was so prosperous that it has 300 musicians, 500 dancing girls and 300 barbers to shave the heads of visiting pilgrims. There is a description to this effect by Al Biruni, an Arab traveller. After a two-day battle, Ghazni Mohammed who took camel-loads of jewels and valuables from here off its fabulous wealth and also destroyed the temple, thus setting a precedent of Muslims destroying the temple and Hindus rebuilding it.

            In 1026 the 17th and last Invasion by Mahmud went to Gazani but returned in 1026 to attack the Jatds and defeated them since they prevented his moving the wealth of Somnath Temple to Gazani. The Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki King Bhima of Gujarat (Anhilwara) took the initiative to rebuild the temple during 1026-1042. For the fifth time, the wooden structure was replaced with a stone structure by Kumarpal the temple was destroyed in 1297 by the Sutanat of Delhi and once again in 1394. The last attack was made by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1706, the Mughal emperor was an indescent for such acts. Mahmud entered the temple and possessed himself of its fabulous wealth.

         `Not a hundredth part of the gold and precious stones he obtained from Somnath were to be found in the treasury of any king of Hindustan.' Later historians have related how Mahmud refused the enormous ransom offered by the Brahmins, and preferred the title of `Idol-breaker’ (But-shikan) to that of `Idol-seller' (But-farosh). He struck the idol with his mace and his piety was instantly rewarded by the precious stones from underneath the idol. It is said that when he struck the idol with his mace it swung off several times from the idol. But ingenuity helped him to smash first the four pillars around it (which had a remarkable magnetic power of attraction so that no iron like material can strike the idol) then he could easily move the wealth from the underground safety shelves. Al-Biruni's role in the Ghazni court, philosopher, astronomer, physician, historian or prisoner, is not clear, but he was apparently well provided and free to pursue his varied interests1. Al-Biruni came to India in 997 with Mahmoud Ghazni's invading army. While Ghazni, one of the worst predators that ever marauded India, was after its legendary treasures his adviser Al-Biruni found his own treasures in Indian science, especially Mathematics and Astronomy.

Here is how adviser Al-Biruni describes the sack of the Holy City of Mathura

               "The Sultan next directed his attacks against the sacred city of Mathura. The city was surrounded by a massive stone wall, in which were two lofty gates opening on to the river. There were magnifcent temples all over the city and the largest of them all stood in the center of it. The Sultan was very much struck by its grandeur. In his estimate it cost not less than 100,000,000 red dinars, and even the most skillful of masons must have taken 200 years to complete it. Among the large number of idols in the temples, were made of pure gold, the eyes of one of them were laid with two rubies worth 100,000 dinars, and another had a sapphire of a very heavy weight. All these idols yielded gold weighing 98,300 mishkals. The idols made of silver numbered 200. He seized all the gold and silver idols and ordered his soldiers to burn all the temples to the ground. The idols in them were deliberately broken into pieces. The city was pillaged for 20 days, and a large number of buildings were reduced to ashes.

                       On April 30th, 1030, Mahmud died in Gazani at the age of 59years, due to malaria and tuberculosis.


Fig.51 Linga: Gupta, Early 5th centuryAD Cave 4, Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh, India.

             This type of linga is known as Ekamukha (one-faced, also spelled ekmukha). The rock-cut caves at Udayagiri seem to have been the focus of a complex mixture of Shiva worship (inside), Vishnu worship (outside), sun worship, and astronomy activity including the prediction of monsoons. Udayagiri is also the original site of the famous iron pillar of Chandragupta II which is now in Delhi. The "caves" themselves are quite shallow. Some are mere niches which are open to the outdoors, while others are accessed by small entrances cut into the rock face.

Ambika Mata temple, Jagat : 
       Celestial Musicians

Fig.52B A heavenly Musician carrying Vina

                     A heavenly musician carrying a vina stands in cross-legged posture. She is flanked by attendants playing instruments, while additional musicians play above. The sculptural group is unified by its musical theme.

                     Astronomy treats Ujjain as on longitude 0 deg, and this is due to the fact that Indian astronomy from the days of the old Siddhantas was zealously studied and formulated at Ujjain. Earlier Vedic astronomy as given in the Vedanga Jyotish does not divide the zodiac into twelve signs but it divides it into 27 Nakshatras or mansions of the moon. This Vedic astronomy was based on the movements of the moon among the several starry constellations and as the moon completes her revolution in 28 days or a little less, the Vedic Rishis divided the zodiac into 27 or 28 mansions. The oldest Panch Siddhanta which formulated nearly accurate methods of calculations of the positions of the Sun, the Moon and Planets. That the old Pancha Siddhantas, of which information is given to us by Varahmihira in his work Panchasiddhantika, was of Pulisha, Romaka, Vasistha, Saura and Pitamaha.

Varahamihir Gaganamupaiti Sikhisikha states that

                   “ksiptamapi ksitimupaiti guru kincit yadvadiha

               manavanama suranam tadvadevajghah”. 
Pancha Siddhanta 13th chapter 4th sloka.

              We have no original works before us and Varahami the oldest of them, namely, Pitamaha must have been formulated long before the beginning of the Shaka era because its system of calculation was the same as that of the Vedanga Jyotish, This tallies with our previous statement that astronomical studies began at Ujjain in Ashoka's time. Greek astronomy had no influence before Ashoka's time, for in the Mahabharat which was probably written about 3000 B. C, there is no mention of Rasis. Astronomy was zealously studied in Ujjain and accurate calculations were attempted. The Pitamaha Siddhanta, the oldest of the Pancha Siddhantas, gave inaccurate results and greater accuracy was shown by Romaka and Vasishtha. It thus seems that five Siddhantas gradually arose in Ujjain as greater accuracy was secured by and by. It appears that there was an observatory in Ujjain probably during the time of Vikramaditya as surmised by Col. Todd. Ujjain is a town in an open plain with equable climate and moderate rain. It means an open horizon and less fear of clouds. Then again being situated nearly on the tropic of cancer, it was the best place to observe the uttermost deflection of the sun towards the north. It is well-known that the equator and the two tropical lines are the places, best situated to make astronomical observations and there being no other city en this line in India, Ujjain was thus best situated for establishing an observatory. Hereafter, Ujjain was under the Shakas and astronomical studies were not only not checked but promoted, for the Shakas came with the civilization of the Yawans or Greeks. The Shakas ruled from 78 A. D. to 388 A, D. astronomical studies prospering in their time, the later Siddhantas formulated methods of calculations based on the Shaka era. Indeed all modern astronomical calculations from the days of Varahinihira down to the days of Bhaskar and Ganesh, the authors of Siddhanta Shiromani and Graha Laghava, respectively, give methods of calculations referred to the Shaka era.


Siddhanta Shiromani states that

                               “Akrste saktisca mah taya yat svathlam

                       Guru svabhimukhanam svasaktya

                       Akrsyate tat putative bhati same

                       Samantat kve patatviyam khe.”

(Bhuvanakosa 8th sloka)

                    Siddhantha Shiromani gives the example of side of a square Ga and the diameter of a circle Ka of the same areas are related as

                                                            Ga = {(2+√2)/6}*Ka
yields                                          the value of PI as 18*(√2-1)^2.

                   The modern Siddhantas which give greater accuracy in calculating the position of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets at any future time were gradually evolved hereafter beginning with the Arya Siddhanta of Aryabhatta. Aryabhatta was a resident of Patna the capital of Gupta Empire. Ujjain City and learning centres were then under the Gupta rule, but continued to be the centre of Astronomy studies. Shri Aryabhatta possibly wrote his Siddhanta Shiromani in 421 S. E. (499A.D) at Ujjain. It was used by Varahmihira. Varahmihira recognized thenceafter i.e. from about 427 S. E. (505A. D.) the year mentioned in his Pancha Siddhantika. He was also a resident of Ujjain. He did not formulate any new Siddhanta but gave the methods taught in the old five Siddhantas which were then current in Ujjain, He also wrote two works Brihatsanhita and Laghu Jatak on astrology which was also developing along with astronomy. During 7th century AD Brahma Gupta wrote Brahma Sputa Samihita.

                   For the Arabs after their conquest of Sindha, in the beginning of eighth century A. D., took the Siddhantas of Aryabhatta’s and others to Bagdad and from thence they went to Cardove, the Arab capital in Spain. From there they went to the Universities in Italy, France, Germany and England. The western Astronomers have, no doubt, developed the Science for their desire and content, and thrown the Indian Siddhantas to the back-ground. But they cannot but acknowledge their debt to the works of Aryabhatta’s and other Indian astronomers. Astronomical studies continued and new Siddhanta giving still more accurate results in Astronomy calculations arose; the most noted of them is Surya Siddhanta which is quite different from the old Saura Siddhanta of the Pancha Siddhantika. Indian Astronomers look upon the Surya Siddhanta as revealed and this idea gaining strength by and by naturally stopped further development in astronomical studies. Where and when this Siddhanta was written we do not know; but it is probable that Surya Siddhanta was proclaimed at Ujjain. As Benares is the place where every new Indian philosophy was preached so Ujjain seems to be the Greenwich of India and the place where every new Siddhanta was promulgated.

               Ujjain continued to be the seat of Astronomical learning down to the days of Bhoja Parmar to whom is attributed the astronomy work named Rajamriganka, though some surmise that this work was written by a court Astronomer named Vidyapati who was the sixth ancestor of Bhaskaracharya, the well-known author of Siddhanta Shiromani. During Mohammadan times we do not know how astronomical studies fared at Ujjain. But we know that Jaisinha, the Moghuls viceroy at Ujjain, in the beginning of eighteenth century built an Astronomical observatory at Ujjain. Jaisinha was an ardent student of Astronomy. He set up two more observatories, one at Delhi and another at Jaipur. All these except that at Jaipur remained unused, but it is to the credit of the late His Highness Maharaja Madhav Rao Scindia that he saw the utility of repairing and improving the stone implements built by Jaisinha and it is notable that the Government of Gwalior has opened an establishment at Ujjain for taking actual Astronomical observations and thus the fame of Ujjain as a seat of Astronomical learning continues down to the present day.

Adi Sankaracharya in Prashnoupanishad 3chapter and 8th sloka states

                 “ Tatha prthivyamabhimanimiya devata prasididtha saisa

                    Purusasya Apana vrttimavastabhya krsya vasikrityadhaeva

                     Apakarsenta anugraham kurvati vartata ityarthah

                      Anyatha ki sariram gurutvat patet savakase vadgacchet.”

                    Just like water finds its downward trend of motion similarly Earth also finds its path around the Sun. For the Astrological predictions INTELLECT INDIA needed the accurate Sun rise and Sun set timings as well those of the Moon. For this purpose they have invented simple instruments of a standing stick (sun dial) whose shadow of the Sun shine gives accurate determination of the times they sought. Corrections for the difference between clock-defined noon and the time when the Sun is directly overhead or on the meridian, which is called the Equation of Time, represents the correction applied to the time given by a Sundial to make it agree with clock time. This Equation of Time can change by up to 10 minutes from 16 June to 5 July, which means that the time when the Sun crosses the meridian changes by 10 minutes, resulting in the times of Sunrise and Sunset changing by the same amount.

                The medieval Indian monograph Yuktibhasa should possibly be considered the Yantras & World’s first calculus text.

                 Astronomical Yantras used were 1. Gola Yantra 2. Bhaga Yantra 3. Chakra Yantra 4. Dhanuss Yantra 5. Gati Yantra 6. Sanku Yantra 8. Karthari Yantra 9. Pita Yantra 10. Kapala Yantra 12. Yasthi Yantra.

                 Aryabhatta lived in Kusumpura in 500AD. He coined Khagola Sashtra i.e. Astronomy. On 21st March 499AD, at Khagola, the famous Astronomy observatory of Nalanda University, seating on a high podium, 23 year old wrote on palm leaves amidst Vedic Chabts, and riniging of temple bells,at an auspiciou moment a treatise later known as Aryabhatiyam. Another treatise of his is Arya Siddhantha. Lalla gave it in “Sisyadhi Vridhida”. Both deal with aspects of Mathematics, Astronomy calculations and Auspicious times for various rituals and preparation of Panchangas. (Hindu Almanacs)

                Raja of Jaipur Sawai Jaisingh-II a vassal of Moghul Emperor in 1724-1727 constructed four Jantar Manthars at Delhi, Jaipur, Mathura and Varanasi. Mathura Jantar Mantar is destroyed. Sun dial at Jaipur is the biggest among all and the stars and the Sun movements were recorded using it. The Panchanga’s (the Indian Almanacs) of these cities would be helpful to know the details of Stars, Planets etc positional details of Celestial bodies, if at all they can be procured and readout with a proper understanding. The pundits have used them those days, in spite of the foreign ruthless suppression and barbaric rule of Indian Nation. Details of Sathamsa Yantra to calculate the diameter of the Sun and Jayaprakasha Yantra to fix the night sky and Stars are yet to be completely studied and investigated. These are the forerunners of the present day Planetariums.

               Kapada Yantra bowl like used by projecting the picture of the Celestial sphere, to fix the latitude and longitude of the stars and other objects of the sky.

                 The Rama Yantra of cylindrical shape was used to fix the astronomy objects. Alburni asserts that the Arabians and Persians gained the knowledge of Astronomy and Astrophysics details from the ancient Indian Astronomers.

On Comets

             (1). Bhrhat Vimana Sastra by Bharadwaja elaborates with the help of Kriya Sara Yantra that there are 3.07,30,221 comets of which 8000 are with electric currents and 12 are most fierce and dangerous.

Fig.53 Agastya’s Sakhti Tantra

(2). Agastya’s Sakthi tantra elaborates 12 comets that occur in rainy season their potency is very high. (3). Jamini’s Keta Sarvasva states that because of Sun burning the objects approaching it the Comets get formed. Thus the Dhuma Ketu meaning an object of smoky character with a centre is more an appropriate description of the object rather than the English meaning-less word Comet.

Jean-Sylvain Baily (1736–93) 18th century French astronomer

               Bailly said "The movement of stars which was calculated by Hindus 4,500 years ago does not differ even by a minute from the tables which we are using today." And he concludes: "The Hindu systems of astronomy are much more ancient than those of the Egyptians even the Jews derived from the Hindus their knowledge.

Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827)

              Laplace wrote “Nevertheless the ancient reputation of the Indians does not permit us to doubt that they have always cultivated astronomy, and the remarkable exactness of the mean motions which they assign to the Sun and the Moon necessarily required very ancient observation.”

The Brass and Bell metal work

           The brass and bell metal work used in the temples that are a part of the Indian culture have received worldwide acclaim. Mahmud of Gazani broke the idol of Somnatha and decorated the walls of the Jami mosque at Bukhara with the rubies and diamonds obtained from the loot of Somnatha temple. (Reference; "History of India by Sir H. Elliot, Vol. II, page 387-88.)

           The expertise of working with metals had been ensconced in the Indian culture at about 2500 B.C. Since then this technology has been portrayed in several figurines and idols displayed in shrines and temples. The dancing figure of Lord Nataraja, an icon of the Chola dynasty and the embodiment of Indian classical dance, is an exquisite piece of art made from metal alloys. Articles of household use, such as lamps, serving plates and bowls, items required in the worship of God, are till date produced in India from metals like gold, silver, copper, brass, bronze, and other alloys. These and even the simple cooking utensils used in the day-to-day life, the nutcrackers, the water vessel (kalsi or kalash) with embossed borders, are all fascinating works of art - all of these exemplify the creative trend in Indian art and culture. The ornaments fashioned out of gold and other precious metals by Indian jewelers are so intricate and resplendent that they are treasured by the common men and royal families alike.

         The humble, unpretentious earthenware are also part of the rich cultural heritage of India. The potters of Indian villages mould the clay into articles of myriad forms – jars, vessels, pots, tumblers, vases, and plates – items of everyday use, brittle yet useful, sometimes ornate and decorative. Ivory has been carved into lace-like textures in the hands of Indian craftsmen, forming fragile idols, trinkets, ornaments, combs and bedsteads. Their craftsmanship inspires awe.The indigenous crafts of India are evidences of the perfection in artforms that has been attained through centuries in Indian Culture.


Fig.54B The silversmiths of Karimangar

               The silversmiths of Karimangar-the creators of silver Filigree always present certain element of newness and surprise in their craftsmanship. Every artefact is a different one, delicate, fine, intricate and unique in structure layout and design. Twisted silver wire is the material at the deft hands of the craftsman, and the articles designed for a trellis-like appearance of what is known as the “JALI”, undoubtedly endowed with a rare charm and splendor. The silversmiths crimps the thin strips of fine silver into zigzag patterns and loops using it to fill up the base designs formed by using thick silver strips. The stripes of thick and fine silver curves are then deftly soldered with utmost care. The ground pattern is totally submerged and only the silver lines jiggle the eye.


Fig.55B Silver Inlay On Metal

         This art of silver inlay on metal is as ancient as that of Ramayana since the description of silver and gold ware of every kind depict the ancient knowledge of silver and precious stones studding in them. The Sufis and the Moghuls forced and even killed the craftsman to adopt their cult and faith and got the ancient knowledge of Indians stolen from the locals brutally. The valour–swords, daggers, lances and the shields of Mahabharata and Ramayana war and their army men were decorated with these artefacts. There are four main stages of the manufacture a. Casting b. Engraving c. Inlaying and d. Oxidizing. All the four methods have been carefully and skillfully copied and adopted even in modern times by the Western Chip makers of the electronic devices and inlaying methods on silicon wafers. With time, the bronze takes on a range of colors caused by oxidation of the surface, an effect that is called patina. This form of craftsmanship existed in Bastar, district of Central India during 7th-14th Century AD.

Stone Carvings

           In classic Sanskrit the sculptor has been given various names. He is known as the Sadhak, the Mantrin and the Yogi. This is perhaps explained by the ultimate aim of the sculptor to be primarily spiritual and only secondarily aesthetic. The sculptor was not endeavoring to portray the mere perfection of the physical structure but has a sense of bringing out the desired form into a physical reality of expression for appreciation by the INTELLECT INDIA. He believed that even the perfect human figure could not fully manifest the higher spiritual values of life, nor contain within itself the attributes and qualities of the divinity.

Wood Carvings
Fig.56B Wood Carvings a Joy of Creation

               Whether the ancient India knows how to fly the wooden objects into the interplanetary travel in the forms of Vimanas (i.e. airplanes) is a lost knowledge or hidden in the texts of Vedic times stolen and preserved elsewhere in the world in sealed cupboards. The carpenter held a significant place in the social, political and religious life of the village and was in fact called the Sutradhar or the "holder of the line". The Sashtra of Plants known as Vrukhashastra mentions about elaborate discipline as to the season and manner of felling a tree, seasoning of the wood and the making of the different articles required. Though carpenters no longer create chariots for warriors, like they used to in ancient India, they definitely continue to enthrall us by their intricate and beautiful work of artefacts for home appliances and uses. Even some political parties today use the chariot like, vehicles or vahanas, for their propaganda stunts in their greed for power and position. Painstakingly created, every wood carving is a story of dedication and perseverance. Matched and ultimately crowned by the joy of creation itself.


Fig. 57B Woodcraft of Indian Artists
            Woodcraft has also attained outstanding perfection in the hands of Indian artisans. The intricate and delicate carvings on the walls of ancient temples are astounding. The figurines and statuettes carved out of wood and stone show unparalleled and inimitable skill. Even the bullock-carts and wooden dolls made by local craftsmen are examples of their dexterity.

             A few families in Ujjain practice the art of wood carving that traditionally belongs to the Malwa region. The craftsmen now largely make idols of gods and goddesses in traditional costumes, especially for the Vanvashis, who offer them in their rituals and auspicious ceremonies. Another alluring and captivating form of wood carving is in the form of small combs with geometric motifs made from sheesham wood. Young Vanvashis boys offer these combs as a symbol of friendship to their loved ones.

            The craftsmen have now diversified into carving wooden doors, panels and decorative items catering to contemporary sensibilities to sustain themselves, giving a fresh lease of life to the craft.

1. Craftsman uses his feet to hold the wood while sculpting the object with his hands.

2. Sculptures nearing completion before the final chiselling.

3. Sheesham combs made in Kangi Mohalla of Ujjain are prized gifts.

4. Brightly organic painted figurine dressed in the local attire.

5. Semi-finished sculpture of Lord Krishna for customer satisfaction of art.

6. Carved and organic painted wooden dolls or votive figurines resemble

the Gangaur dolls that are offered to Goddess Gangaur in Rajasthan.

Bamboo Art and Domestic Use

Fig.58B The Orissa State art of Bamboo Wood still prevalent
              In the Orissa state even to-date the art of Bamboo wood is prevalent. Thanks to Shri Dronamraju Srinivas the local MLA for bringing out the awareness of it.

Fig.59B The selling Bamboo Art daily useful house old items is a renewable Energy, Work and Money.

               In Visakhapatnam the selling of Bamboo art daily useful house old items is a renewable energy, work and money, source as well to the house wife, a newer each item she wish to use.




                The author is greatly indebted to Late Prof K. R. Rao D.Sc. (Madras) D.Sc. (London) for his generous uplift of the students to extrordinary levels of research in several branches of Science and Technology at the Andhra University, Waltair during 1931-1972 years and for imbibing in him the academic outlook. Several of the students well trained at Andhra University, settled abroad have become very silent and devoted in research. Methods of devotion and change of masters for immediate gains of fame and name have influenced several of these students well trained at pain-staking effort, with utmost devotion and concern of their progress by Prof. K. R. Rao.